Aukalnia and Sartland
United Republics of Aukalnia and Sartland
Aukalnijos ir Sartijos jungtinės respublikos
Aukalnijas un Sartijas Apvienotās republikas
Anthem: "Our Boreal Homeland"
"Mūsų Boreali Tėvynė/Mūsu Boreālā Dzimtene"
Political map of Aukalnia and Sartland|
Political map of Aukalnia and Sartland
|Official languages||Aukalnian, Sartish|
|Recognised regional languages||Peremorovkan|
|101,996 km2 (39,381 sq mi)|
• 2020 estimate
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
Aukalnia and Sartland, formally the United Republics of Aukalnia and Sartland (Aukalnian: Aukalnijos ir Sartijos jungtinės respublikos, Sartish: Aukalnijas un Sartijas Apvienotās republikas, Yarovan: Объединенные республики Аукалния и Сартляндия), often known informally as simply Aukalnia, was a sovereign state located in Eastern Artemia that existed from 1926-2020. With an area of 101,996 km2 (39,381 sq miles), Aukalnia and Sartland was administratively divided into the two respective republics of Aukalnia and Sartland, and a single capital territory at Ruchava on the Boreal coast. Aukalnia and Sartland bordered Lienzeberg to the south, Yarova to the south-east, and Lestykhol to the east. In 2018, the estimated population of the country was 5.5 million people. The two official languages of the state, Aukalnian and Sartish, are the only two living languages in the Boreal branch of the Indo-Artemian language family.
Etymology[edit | edit source]
The country’s name came from the two historic regions of Aukalnia and Sartland. Aukalnia, or Aukalnija in the Aukalnian language, derives its name from aukštas kalnas meaning ‘high mountain’ and the common suffix –ija is often added as a descriptor of place names. Whereas Sartland’s native name of Sartija stems from the word sārts meaning ‘ruddy’, which is most widely believed to originate from the country’s iron-rich terrain. In older texts, dating back to the 13th century, Sartland was known as Sartve or Sartvi, the latter being the name of an ancient Boreal tribe.
History[edit | edit source]
Early history[edit | edit source]
Human settlement in most parts of Aukalnia and Sartland only became possible following the thawing of ice from the last glacial era some 12,000-10,000 years ago. However, radiocarbon dating has determined numerous prehistoric villages along the River Skaidrus within the southern interior of the country, such as Kazimierava, were first settled by homo sapiens approximately 25,000 years ago. These earliest inhabitants of Aukalnia and Sartland would have relied on subsistence methods of survival, namely hunting, gathering and fishing in nearby bodies of water. Between the period of 1000-500 BCE, a transition from hunting-gathering-fishing subsistence to single farm-based settlement began.
During the middle Iron Age, the Aukalnians and Sarts warred with each other, as well as with the Gardic Vikings, Kieli, and with the expanding Slavic confederacy of Ljudia to the south-east. Accordingly, it was during this time that the indigenous peoples of the region started to organise into political units. Throughout the early centuries CE, the Pagan Aukalnians and Sarts fought with Slavic Christians who waged a series of crusades in the East Boreal region.
Grand Duchy of Aukalnia[edit | edit source]The Grand Duchy of Aukalnia was an Eastern Artemian state that existed from the 13th century CE to 1801, when the establishment was toppled during the Aukalnian Rebellion with the support of the Vojiskiy Empire. The polytheistic Grand Duchy was founded by Aukalnians but went on to include Sartland, Kryzhelovschina, and parts of Peremorovka and Gardarike. For most of its existence, it was the greatest rival of the Vojiskiy Empire and one of its antecedents, the Peremorovkan Hetmanate. In the late-14th century CE, Grand Duke Vitalijus the Strong-kneed converted to Catholicism and adopted Catholic King of Aukalnia as his secondary title.
Throughout the 15th century and 16th centuries, the Grand Duchy expanded territorially, unifying with Sartland in 1431, Kryzhelovschina in 1483, and pushing the Peremorovkars east of the River Bily in 1576, following their victory at the end of the Aukalnian-Peremorovkan War. The dynastic union of the Peremorovkan Hetmanate and the Tsardom of Yarova in 1692 proved to be a major security risk to the Grand Duchy, however, the Plantations of the Dzyunakaz in the 17th century postponed any immediate advance from the now-united enemies. Grand Duke Modestas II of Aukalnia failed in his attempts of achieving a nonaggression pact with the Vojiskiy war machine and, in 1734, within weeks of crushing the last-standing strongholds of the Dzyunakaz, Yarova invaded Kryzhelovschina.
The Grand Duchy suffered a decisive defeat in a conflict now known as the Four Day War, and the entirety of the Kryzhelovski's traditional homeland was ceded to the Vojiskiy Empire. After this, the Grand Duchy fell into gradual, yet considerable decline, losing control over swathes of land to Gardarike from the mid-18th century onwards. In a strategic ploy to gain access to the Boreal Ocean and pull the Grand Duchy into Yarova’s sphere of influence, the Vojiskiy Empire started to provide weaponry and ammunition to Aukalnian and Sartish rebels on the outset of the peasant Aukalnian Rebellion of 1801. In the winter of that year, the Vojiskiys also dispatched a sizeable expeditionary force of 25,000 troops and, fighting alongside rebels of various ethnic groups, Grand Duke Modestas II was dethroned after the Fall of Ažytėnai on 21 December 1801.
Vojiskiy period (1802-1926)[edit | edit source]
Crown Protectorate of Aukalnia and Sartland[edit | edit source]
The period in the aftermath of the Grand Duchy's collapse consisted of significant Yarovan presence in Aukalnian affairs. In 1802, Aukalnia and Sartland became a Yarovan crown protectorate and Tsar Fridrik I personally selected Uladzimir Gromyko head of state, a Yaro-Kryzhelovski with ties to Yarovan unionism and loyalism. Gromyko styled himself Prince of the Aukalnians and Sarts. Controversially, the former capital of Ažytėnai (renamed Benediktgrad), which was more than 80 percent ethnic Aukalnian, was ceded to Yarova, and in its place, the Sartish city of Ruchava was declared the protectorate's new administrative centre. The city was considered crucial in opening up Yarovan trade connectivity with other Boreal nations, such as Thuyiquakliq. In addition to Benediktgrad, Yarova annexed its surrounding areas and the Boreal islands of Pakalnė (renamed Ostrov Zelënyy) and Gaidsalė (renamed Ostrov Korolevskiy). These captured territories were placed under the jurisdiction of the Lestykhol Guberniya (Лестихол губерния).
Meanwhile, plantation-like settlements, much like the ones observed in Kartvelia, were being established by ethnic s and Peremorovkars in the frontier regions of Pernarava, Griškabūdis, and Švėkšna. In the years between 1805 and 1815, Švėkšna was recorded to have underwent a population increase from 14,450 to 91,315. In an identical manner to the Dzyunakaz settlement model, the Yarovan migrants were offered incentives by the Vojiskiy government to migrate to the undeveloped taiga of southeastern Aukalnia, including titles of nobility and monetary rewards. However, tensions between indigenous Aukalnians and the new East Slavic settlers reached a breaking point by the late 1820s, with skirmishes becoming commonplace between them.
A heightened military presence in the borderlands stirred intense suspicion among the general populace of the protectorate, with fears that Švėkšna, in particular, would be officially annexed by Yarova. In 1853, Tsar Fridrik II authorised the realisation of this, and the Vojiskiy Empire took direct possession of the Švėkšna region. Švėkšna was renamed Shvekshna (Швекшна) and lingered as a symbol of contention between the Aukalnians and Yarovars for over a century. Aukalnian writers and intellectuals were inspired by the surge in nationalist spirit among peoples under Vojiskiy imperial rule through the course of the 19th century. Fearing a separatist uprising in Shvekshna, in 1862, the tsar implemented strict measures to suppress the speaking and study of the Aukalnian and Kryzhelovski languages.
Around this time, in the early 1860s, Prince Stanislaŭ Gromyko launched an initially nonviolent campaign to convert the Aukalnian peasantry from Western Catholicism to the Svogda Patriarchate. Impoverished agriculturists were attracted to the concept owing to the guarantee of tax breaks and supplies of grain. However, more affluent communities, with links to the former elite of the Grand Duchy, were staunchly opposed to the prince's efforts. One altercation between a Western Catholic priest and a group of Orthodox campaigners resulted in a nationwide revolt in 1866, which was promptly shut down by Vojiskiy forces. The strong presence of large Yarovan loyalist communities gave the Vojiskiy Empire a firm grasp over the protectorate. By 1870, approximately 60 percent of Benediktgrad's population of 135,397 were ethnic Yarovars. After 1866, deep divisions between the Aukalnian and Sartish nationalist movements stunted any further attempts to successfully overthrow the protectorate during this period of substantial Yarovisation.
Aukalnian Civil War (1926)[edit | edit source]Second Yarovan Civil War (Vojiskiy War) in 1926, the protectorate struggled to maintain control and Aukalnia and Sartland was plunged into its own civil war. During the Grand Campaigns, communist rhetoric surfaced and was perceived by sections of the peasantry as a credible alternative to the largely unpopular rule of the pro-Vojiskiy Gromykos and the status quo. The events leading up to the September Revolution and foundation of the Socialist Republic of Goetia in 1924 captured the imagination of many literary, artistic and military minds within the protectorate. Liudvikas Vainikonis, a political theorist and fervent pan-nationalist, emerged as a revolutionary leader of the Raudonasis Judėjimas or ‘Red Movement’, which garnered far-reaching support from 1922 onwards. It is estimated that by the start of the Vojiskiy War in July 1924, the Raudonasis Judėjimas boasted almost 50,000 active members across the protectorate of various ethnic backgrounds. This figure is thought to have doubled by January 1926, with the storming of the Imperial Palace in Shchyokhov motivating Aukalnians and Sarts to work together and ignite a so-called ‘Red Revolution’.
The civil war first erupted in the rural interior of the protectorate in April 1926 and quickly reached Ruchava within a month. The velocity of the insurrection, coupled with the absence of outside Yarovan support, provided the Gromykites with very little time to organise a counter-attack. Fighting between Raudonasis Judėjimas combatants and royalists in and around the city of Ruchava lasted for three weeks, when the communist rebels eventually captured the capital. Attention was then swiftly focused on Benediktgrad in June, which had descended into a state of chaos due to the collapse of the Vojiskiy establishment. The port city was heavily abandoned by Yarovan settlers, however, a considerable proportion decided to remain and resisted the communist advance. Benediktgrad finally fell to the communists on 13 July 1926 and was declared the capital of the People's Socialist Boreal Republics of Aukalnia and Sartland, as Ažytėnai. Not long afterwards, the communists went on to regain control of Pakalnė and Gaidsalė.
Communist era (1926-1993)[edit | edit source]
Vainikonis years (1926-1951)[edit | edit source]
The Raudonasis Judėjimas’ victory in the civil war brought about the formation of the Provisional Government of the People’s Socialist Boreal Republics and the appointment of Liudvikas Vainikonis as the transitional chairman. Vainikonis stood unopposed in the country’s first general election held in September 1926. The democratic process was reported to have mirrored the April general elections observed in the United Federated Districts of Yarova, however, the new communist state did not possess a multi-party system and Vainikonis dominated the Raudonasis Judėjimas and its political wing, known as the People's Socialist Party (Liaudies socialistų partija). Early rivals within the movement, such as Pranas Kunskas and Sartish military officer Klavs Sarkanbardis, were rumoured to have been threatened by Vainikonis supporters (known as Vainikonites) to not contend the leadership. However, this was always denied vehemently by Vainikonis and his confidantes.
Towards the end of the civil war, the first President of Yarova Vitaliy Simakin, a vociferous Marxist-Leninist, provided military support to the Raudonasis Judėjimas. Simakin had intended for the United Federated Districts to become a communist one-party state, however, his efforts were met with forceful opposition by allies and rivals alike. Vainikonis had hoped that the demise of the Vojiskiy Empire would usher in a new era of healthy and especially close diplomatic relations between Aukalnia and Yarova but following Simakin's sudden death in September 1926, both countries embarked in a starkly different political direction. Simakin's successor, Rusya Tarasovich, identified as a social democrat and expressed his unwillingness to hand back Shvekshna unless a majority of its inhabitants demonstrated a decisive desire to do so. In response to this, with the knowledge that Shvekshna's population was virtually Yarovar in its entirety, Vainikonis' government severed all trade, commercial and diplomatic relations with Yarova. Furthermore, Aukalnia and Sartland lay territorial claim to Shvekshna (Švėkšna) in its national constitution. This erupted into the Shvekshna territorial dispute (also known as the Švėkšna territorial dispute), which played a central role in the relationship between the two countries for the remainder of the 20th century. During the 1920s and 1930s, the ethnic Yarovar and Peremorovkar populations were systematically repressed by the communist government, with many forcibly deported to Yarova and others sent to labour camps. The national media presented the nation of Yarova as a nemesis of Aukalnia and peddled the notion that the two countries were in a state of war.
Every aspect of Aukalnian daily life was altered under the communist government, from education to leisure. A strict curriculum was set in place to teach schoolchildren solely about the ideology of communism and a clandestine special task force of the police ensured that educators were not critical of Vainikonis' regime. Communism was also heavily featured in art, literature and music at this time, as a means to normalise the ideology and the preservation of the state through propaganda. Vainikonis was glorified by many Aukalnian artists and his well-known portrait was commonly found framed and displayed in the average Aukalnian household. The absence of term limits on his premiership allowed Vainikonis to continually stand in uncontested elections and he dominated political and cultural life in the country for almost three decades. The official state policy of class conflict promoted the idea of purging the country of the bourgeoisie, and this resulted in substantial political violence and the persecution of such people.
Although no official statistics have ever been publically released, it is known that Aukalnia and Sartland’s military expenditure increased rapidly through the course of the 1930s and 1940s, with some approximating the figure to be within the range of 8 percent of GDP by 1948. Military exercises regularly took place along the contested border of Shvekshna and this naturally fermented already-heated tensions between the two states. In March 1950, these tensions finally came to a head when three Aukalnian soldiers were allegedly shot dead by Yarovan Land Forces. Vainikonis responded to this with the strongly-worded Bartninkai Ultimatum, which threatened military action if Yarova did not “withdraw forthwith from all occupied territory of Aukalnia”. Yarovan president Slava Novoseltsev called for calm when reports soon emerged of riots breaking out in the Shvekshna Oblast’s capital of Chernyakhovsk. Violent counter-protests by indigenous Aukalnians in opposition to Yarovan occupation also took place. The Yarovan authorities managed to contain the widespread demonstrations within two days, however, cases of violence against Boreal minorities in the oblast persisted. A heightened presence of the Yarovan military was observed in the aftermath of the ultimatum and, in a dossier that was leaked in 1983, a classified memorandum revealed Novoseltsev was “deeply uneasy about [Vainikonis’] intentions and capabilities”. Within nine months of the 1950 Shvekshna Crisis, on 13 January 1951, the equally glorified and vilified Vainikonis had passed away in Ažytėnai.
Žvirka to Kerasevicius (1951-1993)[edit | edit source]
For many living under the communist regime, the death of Liudvikas Vainikonis was a massive loss for the continuity of the ‘Red Revolution’ and the very purpose of the state. A month of national mourning occurred and the decorative Sarnava Mausoleum was erected in Ažytėnai's city centre to accommodate his remains. The People's Socialist Party organised a leadership contest in February and, after fiery debate and lengthy deliberation, Juris Žvirka was selected as the chairman of the party and the next premier. While a fervent Vainikonite for much of his political career, Žvirka became critical of the government amid the Shvekshna Crisis and possibility of conflict with Yarova. It was of his view that the severing of all ties with Aukalnia's wealthy eastern neighbour was a greater disservice to national interest than it was an inconvenience to Shchyokhov. However, while Shvekshna (Švėkšna) remained under the control of Yarova, it was a predominantly unpopular opinion and it took seven years before Žvirka could afford to begin dialogue with Yarovan president Artur Mosal in 1958. Žvirka met with Mosal for historic peace talks in the Gardic capital of Holmgard in 1958, which eventually resulted in the lifting of Aukalnia's trade ban on Yarovan goods and the establishment of mutual embassies. However, in spite of the progress, Žvirka reneged on his promise to Mosal that Aukalnia would end its constitutional territorial claim over Shvekshna (Švėkšna) and respect the democratic will of its inhabitants. Nonetheless, the fostering of a relationship with Yarova proved to be in Aukalnia's economic favour, as the GDP per capita almost doubled within ten years from $995.50 in 1958 to $1,988 in 1968. The Žvirka years were also significant for the adoption of the Latin script alphabet in 1960, abandoning the Vojiskiy-era Cyrillic script in the process. Aukalnia and Sartland joined the International Movement for Socialism in 1964, which set Žvirka apart from his predecessor in emphasising a ‘Red Revolution’ overseas.
Žvirka resigned from the premiership in 1977 and Merunas Kanys was elected as the country's third head of state. As was witnessed during Žvirka's tenure, Kanys focused on cultivating diplomatic relations with other socialist states and amplifying Aukalnia's voice on the global stage in the process. The early 1980s was a period of relative economic stability in Aukalnia and featured the most significant policies of liberalisation. Amnesty was granted to all citizens convicted of crimes against the state during Vainikonis' rule and the labour camp system was completely abolished by 1983. By 1991, Kanys' government began preparations for partially transitioning Aukalnia and Sartland into a market economy, which was endorsed both by Yarovan president Sergey Khismatullin and the League of Free Nations. Such policies were received negatively by a multitude of prominent figures in the People's Socialist Party and this lead to Kanys' decisive removal from office in 1992. Kanys was succeeded by Marijus Kerasevicius, who rescinded the liberalisation policies, much to the ire of the Yarovan government.
Yaro-Aukalnian War, Missile Crisis and state collapse (1992-1993)[edit | edit source]In an unexpected move, in May 1992, People of Yarova parliamentarians drafted a bill at Shchyokhov to alter the constitution to permit military intervention overseas outside of the realm of defence. The bill was narrowly passed 236-225, with a further 29 crucially abstaining from the major vote. Just three weeks later, on 14 June 1992, President Khismatullin issued a press statement detailing of the "necessity to counteract the evil of communist tyranny on our doorstep”. A couple of hours after the statement's publication, the Federal Armed Forces of Yarova had invaded the sovereign territory of Aukalnia and Sartland. Kerasevicius had mobilised Aukalnian troops in preparation of confrontation, however, the Yarovan Air Force overwhelmed the Aukalnian counterpart to complete decimation within one day of combat. On the ground, the Yarovars broke through by waging a north-bound tank-led assault from Shvekshna towards Ažytėnai. The Yarovars misjudged the flank of the Aukalnian troops and, initially, suffered significant casualties, before surmounting military strongholds and mopping up the last of resistance by the morning of 17 June. According to Yarovan statistics, an estimated 432 soldiers were killed in the offensive and a further 137 have never been recovered. The Aukalnians suffered some 2,500 casualties and lost over 50 tanks. It was at this time that the Yarovan Land Forces reached the outskirts of Ažytėnai, which had already endured heavy air raids. The last of the defence lines were penetrated by the late afternoon and the Yarovars marched through the streets of the capital and demanded Kerasevicius' surrender.
The international community heavily criticised the Yarovan invasion of Aukalnia and Sartland, with condemnations from Gardarike, the International Movement for Socialism and the League of Free Nations. Some domestic district-level governments in Yarova even denounced the intervention, namely the DSP chancellors of Chaykoboksarsk, Afonas'yevskiy Oblast and Minerinsk-Belgorod.
While Kerasevicius’ whereabouts were not determined at this time, in a televised speech on 19 June, he made clear his commitment in continuing to lead an organised resistance against the Yarovan invasion. He firmly asserted that “every small nation across this world deserves the right to be unhindered, unthreatened and unafraid of larger, self-interested aggressors”. In Shchyokhov, President Khismatullin faced a wave of criticism and defended the case for occupation by referring to alleged human rights abuses and the Aukalnian government’s refusal to accept Shvekshna’s principle of consent. However, he emphasised the Federal Armed Forces' objective of aiding in the creation of conditions which would allow future democratic elections, and not annexation. During the same week, Gardic intelligence services gathered information about the sightings by spyplanes of surface-to-air missile sites at five different locations in southern Aukalnia and Sartland. Allegations of potential ballistic missile deployment in Aukalnia by the Federal Armed Forces soon emerged.
Confronted with mounting pressure, particularly by Gardarike, on 9 July, the Khismatullin administration eventually agreed to attend peace talks in Beredria, which were planned to take place sometime in mid-July. However, by 5 August, after several delays and push backs, Holmgard threatened a military response to Yarovan aggression in Aukalnia if Shchyokhov did not dedicate itself to the pursuit of a peace deal. In effect, discussion of a military response echoed across all major global blocs and the coverage of this in the media only fuelled tensions further, and Khismatullin paid heed. On 23 August 1992, the first talks in a one-year peace process were held in Beredria. During this time, Yarova pledged to gradually decrease its military presence in all occupied areas of Aukalnia and, by January 1993, all Yarovan troops had withdrawn and were steadily replaced by a Gardic-sponsored peacekeeping mission. The United Republics of Aukalnia and Sartland was officially founded on 27 January 1993. Democratic elections were monitored by the peace mission and, on 12 February, Pijus Kapcinskas was elected president. On 12 February 1993, the Ruchava Agreement was signed by the newly-formed Aukalnian government and the Khismatullin administration in the city of the same name.
Shvekshna handover and Wars (1997, 1999-2000)[edit | edit source]
While the Ruchava Agreement guaranteed a mutual pact of non-aggression between Aukalnia and its eastern neighbour Yarova, Khismatullin’s presidency was marked with disgrace and the right-wing People of Yarova party was defeated by the Democratic Socialists and Progressives in the Yarovan general election, 1995. The newly-elected President Vladimir Rodchenko was a heated opponent of Yarova’s nuclearisation and the deployment of the Federal Armed Forces into Aukalnia and Sartland. Rodchenko invited President Kapcinskas to Shchyokhov on 20 September 1995 and it was there that a controversial decision was reached regarding the so-called Shvekshna/Švėkšna Question. For the second time in the space of four years, a Yarovan president brought a major vote affecting Aukalnia to the House of Representatives. This time, however, the Yarovan president was in consensus with his Aukalnian counterpart. Since the 1950 riots, it was implicitly agreed by successive Yarovan governments that the constitutional status of Shvekshna Oblast could only be altered by the principle of consent. However, as this was not codified in law, Rodchenko presented to parliament a decolonisation and reconciliation bill which proposed a Yarovan administrative withdrawal from the region and the creation of a Shvekshna Autonomous Community under the jurisdiction of the United Republics. A considerable extent of the Yarovan media lambasted Rodchenko’s bill, as did the Leader of the Opposition and President of the People of Yarova Ivan Pasternak, who accused his political rival of treason.
Geography[edit | edit source]Aukalnia and Sartland was located on the coast of the Boreal Ocean and Aukalnian Sea in Eastern Artemia. With the exception of the Aukalnian Karbykans in the area immediately south-east of Ažytėnai, most of the northern coastal region lies at a relatively low elevation, averaging at 50 metres above sea level. The highest point in the country was Mount Dievo (Aulkanian: Dievo kalnas, Sartish: Dieva kalns, Yarovan: Божья гора), located in the Autonomous Community of Shvekshna (Švėkšna). The geographic interior features low-lying taiga forest vegetation and the river valleys of the Skaidrus and Bily, the latter being the country's longest river measuring 460 km (285 miles) in length.
Latitude was the principal influence on Aukalnia and Sartland's climate. Due to the country's northern location, winter was the longest season. Only in the south interior was summer as long as winter. On average, winter lasts from early December to mid-March in the southern belt from Tagula to Pernarava and from early October to early May on the northern coast. This means that southern portions of the country are snow-covered about three to four months of the year and the northern portions, about seven months. Under the Köppen climate classification, the Karbykans region, situated in Pociūnai and Linkmenys, was regarded as tundra (ET). The northern coastal region, home to the country’s three major cities, was subpolar oceanic (Cfc) and oceanic (Cfb). Whereas the interior of the country and the southern regions are predominantly subarctic (Dfc) and warm-summer humid continental (Dfb).
The wildlife of Aukalnia and Sartland was affected by prevailing environmental conditions. Phytogeographically, Aukalnia was shared between the Boreal, central Artemian, and northern Artemian provinces of the circumboreal region within the Boreal Kingdom. The number of species living in Aukalnia and Sartland has been estimated to be at least 45,000. At the moment, known fauna consists of 28,000 species, flora of 5,500 species and fungi 7,500 species. The largest group is insects, over 25,000 known species and estimated total 35,000 known species. Aukalnia is home to an abundance of nesting bird species, such as the chaffinch and the puffin, which dominates the offshore islands. Mammals found in the country include the arctic fox, grey wolf, wolverine, Artemian polecat and the muskox. The national animal is the brown bear. In an active effort to conserve the country’s flora and fauna, the Aukalnian government has set up state-owned wildlife reserves – as of 2018, there are more than 1,200 of varying sizes.
Boreal War and state collapse (2020)[edit | edit source]
Politics[edit | edit source]
The politics of Aukalnia and Sartland operates within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy. Aukalnia and Sartland is a republic whose head of state and head of government is President Džiugas Svidrauskas, who leads the nation’s executive branch and foreign policy, and is the supreme commander of the Defence Forces of Aukalnia and Sartland. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Aukalnia and Sartland (Aukalnian: Aukalnijos ir Sartijos parlamentas, Sartish: Aukalnijas un Sartijas parlaments, Yarovan: Парламент Аукалнии и Сартлыандии) and the government has limited rights to amend or extend legislation. Because the Fundamental Law of Aukalnia and Sartland vests power to both the president and government, the president has veto power over parliamentary decisions, although this power can be overruled by a majority vote in the parliament. There are no limitations on the number of five-year terms the president may have.
There are currently 160 seats in the unicameral parliament, popularly elected every four years, with each seat representing approximately 90,000 Aukalnian citizens. At present, the Socialist Unity Party (Socialistinė vienybė partija) is the largest party in the country with an overall majority of 88 seats, and is the direct descendant of the communist People’s Socialist Party. The Socialist Unity Party have dominated the political landscape since the collapse of the People’s Socialist Boreal Republics in 1993. The Reform Party (Reforma partija) forms the official opposition, with 53 seats.
Administrative divisions[edit | edit source]
The United Republics of Aukalnia and Sartland is divided into two republics with their own regional parliaments, namely the Republic of Sartland and the Republic of Aukalnia. These republics are subdivided into counties (Aukalnian: apskritis, Sartish: apgabali, Yarovan: графств). There are currently eight counties in Sartland and twelve in Aukalnia. Municipalities (Aukalnian: savivaldybės, Sartish: pašvaldībām, Yarovan: муниципалитеты) are populous urban areas with representation equivalent to the counties, Ruchava is Sartland's only municipality, whereas Aukalnia is home to the municipalities of Ažytėnai and Šakyna.
Owing to the fact the Autonomous Community of Shvekshna (Švėkšna) has its own legislative assembly, it is often referred to as Aukalnia and Sartland's third republic, although this formal title is not officially used. While Aukalnia and Sartland possess their own unique cultural and ethnic identity, Shvekshna (Švėkšna) has an ethnic Yarovar majority and a significant Peremorovkar minority. In 2017, Yarovan-speaking people comprised of 66.5 percent of the overall population, and a further 9 percent spoke Peremorovkan as a mother tongue.
Economy[edit | edit source]
The economy of Aukalnia and Sartland is the world's 48th largest economy by GDP based on purchasing power parity (PPP), which in 2020 stood at $61.58 billion, or $11,083 per capita. Beneficial terms of Yarovan oil deliveries are behind a degree of economic dependence on Yarova, Aukalnia’s fellow League of Free Nations neighbour. According to some estimates, profits stemming from the low prices the country pays for Yarovan petroleum - either consumed locally or processed and then re-exported - has occasionally accounted to up to 10 percent of national GDP. In addition to this, the main export market for the Aukalnian agricultural and industrial produce lies in its Yarovan neighbour. Peat, the country's most valuable mineral resource, is used for fuel and fertiliser and in the chemical industry. Aukalnia and Sartland also has deposits of clay, sand, chalk, dolomite, phosphorite, and rock and potassium salt. Forests cover about 45 percent of the land, and lumbering is an important sector.
As a protectorate of the Vojiskiy Empire, Aukalnia had a relatively well developed industrial base; it retained this base following the dissolution of the empire. The country also has a broad agricultural base and a high education level. Among the former territories of the Vojiskiy Empire, it had one of the highest standards of living. With the collapse of the People’s Socialist Boreal Republics in 1993, the country faced a deep economic crisis. After the 1993 election of Pijus Kapcinskas as the first President of Aukalnia and Sartland, he launched the country on the path of “market socialism”. In keeping with this policy, administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates were introduced. Also the state’s right to intervene in the management of private enterprise was expanded, but on 2 April 2003, the president issued a decree abolishing the golden share rule in a clear movement to improve its international rating regarding foreign investment.
Security and defence[edit | edit source]The United Armed Forces of Aukalnia and Sartland is the name for the unified armed forces of the Aukalnian and Sartish Land Force, the Aukalnian and Sartish Air Force, the Aukalnian and Sartish Naval Force, the Aukalnian and Sartish Special Operations Force and other units, such as the Aukalnian and Sartish Military Police. Directly subordinated to the Chief of National Security and Defence are the Special Operations Forces and Military Police. The country’s Reserve Forces are under command of the Aukalnian and Sartish National Defence Volunteer Forces. The United Armed Forces consist of some 55,000 active personnel, which may be supported by the Reserve Forces. Throughout the communist era, conscription was compulsory but was ended in 1993 with the fall of Kerasevicius’ regime. Conscription has been subsequently reintroduced, re-enacted in 2018. Some political commentators have speculated that this decision came in direct response to increased military spending within the AES.
Building on the progress made in the Ruchava Agreement and monetary union talks of the 1990s, the subsequent decade saw the establishment of five military installations of the Yarovan Federal Armed Forces in Aukalnia and Sartland. In addition to this, Yarovan fighter jets are deployed in Ažytėnai International Airport, Pilsupiai and provide safety for the Aukalnian airspace. The Aukalnian and Sartish National Security and Defence Policy aims to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land, territorial waters and airspace, and its constitutional order. Its main strategic goals are to defend the country's interests, and to maintain and expand the capabilities of its armed forces so they may contribute to and participate in the missions of LFN member states. According to official statistics in 2019, Aukalnia and Sartland allocated 5.5 percent of its GDP to national security and defence.
The national security and defence ministry is responsible for combat forces, search and rescue, and intelligence operations. The 10,000 frontier guard fall under the Interior Ministry supervision and are responsible for border protection, passport and customs duties, and share responsibility with the naval forces for smuggling and drug trafficking interdiction. A special security department handles the protection of high officials/people of importance and communications security. In 2014, the Aukalnian and Sartish defence ministry announced the establishment of the National Cyber Security Centre of Aukalnia and Sartland, which is headquartered in Ažytėnai.
Demography[edit | edit source]
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Culture[edit | edit source]
This article or section is in the process of an expansion or major restructuring. You are welcome to assist in its construction by editing it as well. If this article or section has not been edited in several days, please remove this template.
This article was last edited by BCMatsuyama (talk | contribs) 8 months ago. (Update)