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Cerveran People's Directorate

Directorio Popular Cerverano
Flag of Cervera
Motto: El Amor a la Patria Nos Inspira
(Agranian: "The Love of the Homeland Inspires Us")
Anthem: La Bayamesa
Agranan: "The Song of Bayamo"
Capital Matanzas
Largest Puerto Fortuna
Official languages Agranian
indigenous languages
Ethnic groups
Agranians, Jungastians Theykans, Macaré, others
Demonym Cerveran, Cerverano/a, Cerverão
Government single party Directivist state
Roberto Martinez Cuellar
• Viceroyalty of Cervera Established
• Independence
17 June 1818
• 2020 (est.) census
GDP (PPP) estimate
• Total
$580.9 billion
• Per capita
Gini 42.8
HDI 0.796
Currency Cerveran Peso (CVP)
Date format mm-dd-yyyy
Driving side right
Calling code +287

Cervera, formally the Cerveran People's Directorate, is a sovereign state located on the continent of Avalonia and sharing land borders with Zahava to the south and Albaterra to the south and west, as well as a significant maritime border on the Ingonian Sea with Theyka.

Situated at a cultural crossroads astride the Iapetus Ocean and Ingonian Sea, Cervera was settled in prehistory by indigenous peoples derived from the Theykan ethnic group as well as a diverse group of cultures descended from the south-central Avalonian indigenous populations of SiWallqanqa and Albaterra. First contact with the Artemian World occurred in the late 16th and early 17th century, after which the region came under the dominion of Agrana y Griegro before gaining independence in 1818. Following a series of unstable republics and a brief monarchy, Directivists under the leadership of Raul Garcia Alvarez seized power in 1931 and transformed the country into an authoritarian single-party state based on their ideals. Present-day Cervera is considered a developing economy and, though unaligned with any major regional blocs, is increasingly active in world and economic affairs in the 21st century.

History[edit | edit source]

Prehistory[edit | edit source]

Present-day Cervera was first settled by indigenous groups approximately 3,000 years ago, though the routes of settlement and ultimate ethnogenesis of these peoples remain uncertain. The most commonly accepted theories are of northward migration from present-day SiWallqanqa or a southerly migration from an urheimat in north-central Avalonia near present-day Tilenno. The fertile lowland basin of the Macaré River provided ample ground for the growth of sophisticated agrarian societies by 1000 BCE, of which the eponymous Macaré were the largest and longest lasting, from approximately 400 AD to first contact with Artemian civilization in the 17th century. Other prominent peoples included the nomadic Denih'tso and Kayenta cultures of the northwest and present-day [[Albaterra]; the Waranga-nui of Theykan extraction; and the Wintu and Wintari peoples of the southern highland rainforests.

Colonial Period[edit | edit source]

Agranian and Jungastian trade vessels made periodic visits to the Avalonian coast including present-day Cervera from around 1600, with Agrana y Griegro establishing the colony of Trinidad in 1597 and Jungastia following suit with Satao in 1612. In 1629, Agranian conquistador in Jungastian service Juan Miguel de Cerva landed a party at present-day Puerto Fortuna and engaged in conquest of the Macaré, which was complete by 1633; the new colony, claimed for Jungastia, was named Cervera in his honor. The conquest, however, was not without controversy; while de Cerva was under Jungastian service at the time, Agrana y Griegro refused to recognize Jungastian sovereignty on the grounds that de Cerva was an Agranian subject. This uncertain state of affairs would prevail until 1651, during which time the colony became effectively terra nullius and a haven for pirates, smugglers and those seeking new lives in the Avalonian World. The marriage of Jungastian Crown Prince Felix to Maria III of Agrana y Griegro, and expected personal union of their crowns upon their respective accessions, saw sovereignty over the colony transferred to Agrana y Griegro, a transaction sometimes classified as a dowry payment.

Agranian colonial administration was swift, effective and not without brutality. Chief among the administration's priorities was the eradication of piracy and enculturation of the Macaré and other indigenous peoples into the Marian faith. A system of latifundia was established in the interior regions, with missions and private plantations cultivating the land and assuming responsibility for the "civilizing" of its indigenous inhabitants, who were indentured to work the estates in exchange for housing and education. Immigration from Agrana y Griegro and elsewhere was encouraged by cheap, readily-available plots of agricultural land in the interior and perceived greater social and economic mobility available in the new colony.

Independence and First Republic[edit | edit source]

By the 18th century Cervera had become a thriving colony with a strong agricultural backbone and burgeoning economic hubs in the coastal cities of Matanzas, Puerto Fortuna and Bayamo. As one of Agrana y Griegro's most far-flung colonial holdings, Cervera benefitted from a relatively lax colonial regime and was seen as an attractive and permissive outlet for intellectuals, religious nonconformists and others who chafed under conditions in the mother country. This state of affairs changed following a bloody and ultimately unsuccessful rebellion on Trinidad which lasted from 1804 to 1808; the fallout of this conflict frightened administrators in Agrana y Griegro who in turn adopted a firmer policy toward their colonial holdings, dismissing colonial governors seen as overly permissive or sympathetic to their subjects.

In 1809, retired naval administrator and member of parliament Guillermo de La Rocha was appointed colonial governor of Cervera. De La Rocha, who had never visited Cervera, arrived in Matanzas in February 1810 and was received respectfully, if coolly, by the city's notables. The appointment, however, would have no honeymoon period; at a banquet thrown in his honor, De La Rocha gave a speech in which he asserted the paternalistic nature of the colonial relationship, likening it to that of a mother and child and concluding "the relationship thus described is not and cannot be one of equals, but rather one in which the mother assumes responsibility for the training up of her progeny in the hope that they will one day make mature and honorable members of our great community of nations, retaining always the affection for and loyalty toward that which gave them birth." The tone of this speech alienated the colonial elites, who had hitherto been accustomed to a degree of self-rule; further actions by the new regime to enforce censorship and church attendance laws of the mainland only served to further inflame tensions.

The final incident leading up to the war of independence occurred in April 1816 in Bayamo as the governor was en route, with entourage, to inspect a regiment of troops there. Already deeply unpopular, his journey through the streets of the city to the parade ground was lined by jeering citizens who accosted the caravan with rotten fruit, rocks and chamber pots. Incensed, De La Rocha ordered his bodyguard to arrest those responsible; the ensuing scuffle left 5 civilians dead and escalated into a riot, known retroactively as the Battle of Bayamo, which saw members of the town militia clash with the Bayamo Regiment and De La Rocha's retinue, the latter being forced to return to Matanzas. The Bayamesa, written by an anonymous author the following day, was circulated in pamphlets throughout the city and quickly attained national prominence as a call for the overthrow of colonial rule.

The subsequent war, waged from 1816 to 1818, saw heavy reinforcements of troops under the command of general Rodolfo Aguilar sent to garrison the cities and tamp down the rebellion; unaccustomed to the harsh tropical environment, these troops suffered heavy attrition to disease and exhaustion as well as withering rebel assaults. Fighting was fiercest in the interior, where local militias were unified into the Army of the Cerveran Republic under the command of former colonial officer Emiliano Cardenas, who excelled in unconventional warfare and leveraged his troops' knowledge of the land and local conditions to make up for their numerical disadvantage. By 1818, with most of the country under rebel control and the cities increasingly cut off, the Agranan forces abandoned their former colony, though refusing to sign any treaty or instrument which acknowledged either a cessation of hostilities or the independence of Cervera.

Monarchy[edit | edit source]

Second Republic[edit | edit source]

Military Rule[edit | edit source]

Third Republic[edit | edit source]

Directivist Era[edit | edit source]

Geography and Climate[edit | edit source]

An equatorial nation, Cervera's climate is tropical in nature with heavy influence from warm water currents in the Iapetus and Ingonian, with consistent rains year-round and little seasonal variation in temperatures, which average 28-30 Celsius for highs and 20-22 Celsius for lows. Rainfall is consistent throughout the year, ranging from a low monthly average of 278mm in October to a high average of 403mm in July. Geographically, Cervera is situated in a large basin which comprises the Macaré River and its watershed, bounded by plateau regions on its north coast and mountainous areas in the southeast and roughly straddling the southern border. These areas tend to be somewhat wetter and more humid than the interior, though the overall difference throughout the year is negligible.

Politics[edit | edit source]

Cervera is a single-party state governed by the National Directivist Party, which functions as a vanguard party and mass organization having total control of all political and civic life in the nation. Legislative power is vested in the Supreme Popular Council, a 390 member body which meets to consider bills and measures to become law; in practice, as the party adheres to the concept of democratic centralism, the legislature acts as little more than a rubber-stamp. Additionally to the legislative body, the Presidium of the National Directive, composed of Supreme Popular Council Members, former Directors-General, and other leading party figures, meets every ten years to consider changes to party policy as well as appoint the next Director-General; special sessions of the Presidium may also be called in the event of national emergency or the death in office of the Director-General.

Executive authority is formally vested in the Supreme Council of State, comprised of the Director-General and Directors of the various government Directorates, equivalent to cabinet-level offices in other countries; the Director-General is also, ex officio, the head of the National Directivist Party. From 1952 to 1991, an office of President of the Supreme Council of State existed independently of the Director-General's office; the two were formally merged in the Sixth Presidium of the National Directive and the office is now considered to be de facto abolished, with the Director-General assuming the position of head of party as well as head of state.

Law[edit | edit source]

Cerveran law is outlined in the 1934 Constitution, which establishes Directivism as "the sole legitimate political expression and guiding force of the people" and serves as the supreme law of the land. The constitution theoretically guarantees rights to public assembly, religious expression, speech and the independent press, as well as civil rights regarding freedom from self-incrimination and the right to legal assistance. However, these rights are explicitly curtailed by the provision that their assertion may not run contrary to the maintenance of the Directivist system, leading foreign analysts to describe them as essentially moot.

Cerveran judiciary is divided into Civil and Criminal branches, the former being conducted in tribunal format with judges as finders of fact and presidings overseen by a single judge or magistrate. Criminal law, by contrast, operates on the Directivist principle of "Scientific Justice", wherein each separate facet of the case (e.g. evidence of plaintiff and defendant, witness statements, police reports) is reviewed by a panel of jurists in closed session acting as finders of fact. Summations are then presented en banc to a final panel of jurists to render a verdict, followed by yet another judicial panel to issue sentence, taking into consideration all foregoing information in terms of mitigation and aggravation. While Directivists charge that this system is designed and intended to eliminate bias in criminal proceedings, critics of the regime have argued that it has the effect of denying the accused proper representation in court and the ability to properly defend oneself; critics also allege that the byzantine nature of the judicial process leads to indefinite and arbitrary detention of accused persons without due process.

Cerveran law enforcement is organized in the Policia Nacional, which serves as the primary law enforcement body in the Directorate. While a unitary force under the guidance of the Directorate of Justice, it is administratively organized into provincial and city jurisdictions. While not a military branch in and of itself, it acts as a gendarmerie and can be mobilized to assist the military in times of crisis or for disaster relief. Additionally, the Directorate of Justice employs a secret police, the Internal Police for the Defense of the Revolution, which is charged with investigating and disrupting crime of a political or dissident nature.

Foreign Affairs[edit | edit source]

Following the Directivist Revolution, the Cerveran government initially pursued a policy of limited participation in world affairs. The gradual opening of the country to foreign trade in the 1950s coincided with a more active role in world affairs, supporting anti-imperialist and revolutionary movements throughout Kesh and Avalonia including the Mirhanis, Madaristan People's Army and Kodeshia in the Great Kesh War and the Revolutionary Force faction of the Arbenzan United Front for Popular Resistance throughout the Arbenzan Revolution. While these alliances failed in their primary goal of spreading Directivist ideology abroad, they would lay the groundwork for foreign relations with sympathetic (if politically disparate) governments such as those of Goetia, Borgosesia and post-revolutionary Arbenz.

At present, Cervera is not party to any multinational alliance, having previously been an observer of ECOSEAS from 1978-1995, when it withdrew citing "continued SiWallqanqa imperialism dressed up as mutual cooperation." Notwithstanding this, the Directorate maintains active economic relations with its Avalonian neighbors and others, albeit on an individual basis. The Directorate has no formal relations with Agrana y Griego, which does not recognize it as a legitimate government.

Military[edit | edit source]

The military forces of Cervera are organized in the Army of the People's Directorate (Armada del Directorio Popular; ADP), which in turn is comprised of the Army, Navy and Air Force, totalling approximately 150,000 active duty personnel overall, with an additional 100,000 inactive reserves that can be mobilized in time of crisis or national emergency. Military forces report to the Directorate for Defense of the Revolution, and are considered an organ of the party rather than the state itself. Cerveran military tactics are primarily defensive in nature following the doctrine of Total People's Defense adopted from Veikaia. Experience in the Arbenz Revolution has also bred a military culture well versed in guerrilla and asymmetric warfare. Male conscription begins at age 18 for a term of 18 months (12 active duty, 6 reserve), with the majority of conscripts being sorted into the Army. Notwithstanding this, the military is fully gender integrated at all levels and operational specialties.

Additionally to military forces, the party itself maintains the paramilitary People's Militia for National Defense (Milicia Popular de la Defensa Nacional; MPDN), comprised of battalions organized at a party cell level. These forces, numbering approximately 350,000, receive periodic training in light weaponry and are primarily mobilized for disaster relief operations and as auxiliaries to the police in time of emergency.

Cerveran arms have historically been supplied by Goetia, with small arms made under license and certain light vehicles and aircraft indigenously produced.

Economy[edit | edit source]

Cervera operates a syndicalist economy in a hybrid system, the total output of which is worth approximately $580.9 billion. Directivist economic principles view the trade union, composed of and operated collectively by workers in a specific trade or set of trades, as the proper vehicle in which to place the means of production. Unions accordingly operate and manage large sectors of the economy through subsidiary corporations which handle specific aspects of production; for example, a cattle farm may operate under the aegis of the People's Union of Farmworkers, but acts as an independent entity in its daily economic activity. Economic sectors considered vital to the national interest, such as healthcare, defense, electricity, utilities and public transportation are wholly state owned. Notwithstanding this, limited private enterprise does exist in Cervera, typically in small businesses such as grocers, florists and specialty shops. Among the chief objectives of Directivist economic policy is the pursuit of full employment, in consequence of which unemployment is very low, with a reported figure of 2.3% for the 2020 fiscal year.

Historically an agrarian society, industrialization began in the early 20th century and was accelerated in the decades following the Directivist Revolution, with an initial focus on heavy industry and infrastructure. Agriculture today makes up 28% of the Cerveran GDP, with major agricultural exports including timber, sugarcane, tobacco, maize, fish and cattle. From the 1960s onward, industrial focus began to shift from heavy industry to consumer goods for export, a sector which now makes up a plurality (41%) of GDP. The largest industrial exports by GDP impact are semiconductors, automobiles, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications equipment, uranium and coal. In recent decades the service sector of the economy has also emerged as an economic driver in its own right, primarily geared around tourism.

Cervera's currency is the Cerveran Peso, divided into 100 centavos; the peso is a fiat currency with exchange rates fixed by the Directorate of Treasury, and foreign exchange is generally unavailable outside the country itself. Inflation is officially estimated at 7.5% per annum, with unofficial black market figures reflecting an annual inflation ranging from 11-15%.

Public Works[edit | edit source]

In line with Directivist social policy and the goal of full employment, Cervera has a robust government-subsidized and state-owned public works network with government spending approaching 70% of GDP. Emergency and routine medical services are free to all citizens at point of use, and gas and water services heavily subsidized on a sliding scale according to household income. Infrastructure development and maintenance has historically been a priority of economic planning, with public works such as bridges, dams and other structures developed for public need, jobs programming and as internal and external propaganda efforts.

Transportation[edit | edit source]

Public transportation is ubiquitous throughout the Directorate, with the FerroCervera rail network providing short, medium and long haul train service between cities and most cities possessing a metro rail or subway. These tend to be inexpensive to the consumer at point of use, subsidized by government investment. City and long-haul bus services, both state owned and private, are also available as are taxis in the major cities. Cervera's flag carrier CervAero operates out of Matanzas Raul Garcia Alvarez International Airport (ICAO: MTZ) with numerous destinations throughout Avalonia, Kesh and Artemia.

Personal vehicle ownership in Cervera is among the lowest in the world, with 34% of adult households owning a personal vehicle; this is due in equal part to the government's emphasis on public transport as well as financial and governmental barriers to vehicle ownership historically. In recent decades, efforts to encourage personal vehicle ownership have become commonplace as manufacturing switches to an increasingly light consumer goods focus.

Energy[edit | edit source]

Electricity in Cervera is provided by the state-owned National Electric Co-operative, and available on a quota-based sliding-scale system based on household income and projected monthly need, with overage charges applied to households that exceed their quota. The majority of the country's electrical need has historically been provided by coal and wood-burning plants, though efforts since the 1970s to diversify and modernize the grid have led to significant developments in hydroelectric, solar and nuclear power. The latter of these culminated in the 1989 opening of the 17 de Junio Nuclear Power Plant in Providencia. The plant, built with Borgosesian technical assistance, currently provides about one third of national power needs and is credited with greatly reducing the incidence of rolling blackouts in major cities.

Culture[edit | edit source]

Cerveran culture is diverse and vibrant, drawing influences from Agranian colonization as well as Theykan and indigenous populations, and characterized by the centuries of change and upheaval which have defined the country.

Sport[edit | edit source]

Baseball and association football are the two most popular sports in Cervera, with the Liga Profesional de Béisbol and Primera Liga de Futbol Cerverano representing the top professional tiers of each sport respectively. International participation in sporting competition has been historically infrequent, though the country has participated in the AIFA Anterran Cup of association football since 1948, achieving a third place finish in 1950 and a second place finish in 1968 as well as hosting the competition in 2019. Aside from this, Cervera has regularly sent a delegation to compete in the Kharmideian Games and Cerveran constructors and drivers have competed in the People's Formula motorsport series.

In recent years, the sport of gridiron football has become increasingly popular among youth, with Cervera joining the Avalonian Gridiron Union in 2009 and sending its first team the following year. While no professional league currently exists for the sport, it has become a popular intramural offering at universities and youth sports clubs.

Cuisine[edit | edit source]

Cerveran cuisine is widely varied and draws upon the culinary traditions of Agrana y Griegro and Zahava as well as indigenous ingredients and culinary traditions. Pork and beef are the two most widely consumed meats, with rice and maize the most common cereal grains. Bell peppers, poblanos, onions, avocados, yucca and tomatoes are among the most widely consumed vegetables with a diversity of fruit including coconut, banana, mango, tamarind, plantain, and pineapple being common throughout Cerveran cuisine. Breakfast is usually small and sweet rather than savory, with churros or other pastries consumed with strong dark coffee. A medium sized lunch of rice or tortilla and vegetables, and large dinner with a main meat and rice, beans and tostones or plantains, is historically common though gastronomical habits have changed slightly in recent decades as offerings become more cosmopolitan. Desserts are usually based around milk and sugar with tres leches cake and flan being the most widely known.

Media[edit | edit source]

Contemporary Cerveran media is state-owned and subject to censorship to ensure compliance with Directivist ideals. The state media apparatus El Grito has an estimated daily paper circulation of 10 million, as well as operating news and sports television channels. Contemporary forms of Cerveran television media include the telenovela, a form of dramatic soap opera usually premised upon competing love or business interests and featuring a recurring cast of characters serialized over a period of years. Cerveran film tends to follow a similar pattern, focusing on meta-historical settings for its plots, which may contain veiled allegory to present-day conditions; these are usually tolerated by censors.

Cervera has a rich musical tradition stemming from its precolonial era, with classical Cerveran music influenced by colonial life as well as movements and styles from Albaterra, Arbenz and Agrana y Griegro; ranchero music is considered to be a hallmark of Cerveran traditional music often played by large ensemble bands. Modern popular musical genres include the natively-derived reggaeton, bachata, and zumba as well as rap and various forms and styles of rock music. From the mid-2000s onward, Cerveran artists have gained increasing international recognition, most notably rapper YG Cero collaborating with Theykan artists on an album released in 2020.

Architecture[edit | edit source]

Religion[edit | edit source]