Empire of Osorra
Motto: Пусть Империя проживет 10 000 Лун!
May the Empire Live for 10,000 Moons!
Anthem: Национальный гимн Осорpы
National Anthem of Osorra
Area controlled by Osorra in dark green
|Official languages||Osorrai Yarovan|
|Recognised national languages||
• 2020 estimate
• Per capita
|Currency||Ossora Ruble (ORU)|
Osorra (Осоppа), offically the Empire of Osorra (Империя Осора), is a sovereign state located in Perela, south of Tilenno, with around 131 million people. Governed by a triumvirate, Osorra is an plutocracy where powerful families and secret societies hold most power. After the political chaos of the 90s - Misha Mikhaylov and several others instituted a triumvirate and sent the Tsar into exile. Osorra is among of the most unequal countries in Anterra with political and economic power being heavily centralized in a small class. Large corporations have an unprecedented degree of political influence. In recent years, the government has worked to digitize and build massive apparatuses of cybernetic control.
Osorra has a lush, varied, geography. From the Intoi Mountains to the Western seaboard there primarily exists, rainforests, or wetlands. This region is the most populated part of Osorra and has been heavily deforested for human settlement. Among 80 million people live to the West of the Intoi. Northern Osorra is dominated by an desert. For much of history this region was sparsely populated but with the Okarina Gold Rush and later oil prospecting 8 million people now live in this region. Many people live near or on the Intoi themselves. This region is among the poorest in the country and is economically dominated by the mining industry. Cuzka remains the largest city in central Osorra. Finally the east is primarily made up of mostly grasslands or wetlands. This region is the breadbasket of the country where much of the food is grown. Around 35 million people live in this region.
The first Osorrai city-states are believed to have arisen around the 10th century BCE. By the 5th century, they had united under the Oin Confederation. This Confederation created many written works, the basis for Osorra's religious system, and spread the first mythologies. It was displaced soon afterwards, the causes still unknown. In this power vacuum, the northern city-states would join with Teruko who would established an elaborate system of alliances and vassals until their collapse in 1200 BCE. After the collapse of Teruko Osorra would temporality reunite under the strong-maned Pachakutic, only for him to die and his children to fight over his holdings. These sons would fight each other in the Chi'aw Period and left Osorra divided for thousands of years under the Tuta. There were several attempts to unite Osorra during this period, the most notable of which was under Pachakutic II, but these dark ages would last until the formation of the Ossoi Empire by the foreign conquerer Axateqem.
Axateqem's dynasty was always quite unstable, with him having to balance the various factions of state. Eventually, the Ossoi Empire collapsed by the 17th century. War and turmoil ensued until the Bacti League formed and united the country - purportedly to protect it from outsiders. Osorra would close its borders and ports from the outside world for the next few centuries. Various traders were only allowed into Osorra from a few key trade cities, until the Yarovars were able to strike a deal to construct a fort in the lands of the Arnica House. The Yarovars progressively gained more influence in this kingdom turning it into a client state. Now guaranteed Yarovar support, he launched the brutal The Wars of Osorrai Unification taking over the country. With his victory, the modern Osorrai state was created. The Yarovphillic Qoya would begin a program of Yarovification in an attempt to create unity among culturally distinct groups. Settlers came en masse from Yarova, Kesh, and Southern Avalonia totally reshaping Osorrai society.
Industrialization and urbanization saw a newfound intellectual and business class grow in Osorra. Extremely wealthy and powerful, yet unhappy with both Yarovar and native authorities they called for radical political overhauls, threatening the Viceroy's (or Qoya's) hold on power. Finally when Yarova eventually fell to civil war, Mensheviks would take over during the October 13th Event with the assistance of the army - establishing a new Democratic Republic of Osorra. They implemented a vaguely left-leaning program of Sotsial'nyy Pod'yem - building railways, cleaning cities, and improving infrastructure. Due to a credit crisis, by the 40s Osorra fell into an economic depression that allowed Volkovists to take power. The Volkovists were dominated by futurists, who rejected the reformist approach of the Mensheviks and wanted to rebuild the country anew. With the Volkovists in power, the early 50s saw a National Reconstruction take place where the country was greatly strengthened. Osorra's rising power and bombastic international stance led to the Frigid Chessboard. However, Osorra eventually lost this cold conflict when it went hot in the Osorra-Tilenno War. Osorra lost and was forced to enact many reforms, open up the economy, painfully restructure many industries, and allow for Democratic elections. These reforms were controversial and led to a coup in 1989.
The coup saw the banning of the Communist Party and all factions in the government along with the removal of Socialism from the Constitution. Vast civil unrest occurred until the rise of Misha Mikhaylov. His ascendence led to a stabilization of the economic situation along with the army being rebuilt. Still, another coup in 2014 led to the young Tsar being exiled and the triumvirate to take charge. Secret societies like the Balakirev Triad were believed to play a large role in this coup.
Osorra is one of the great powers of Avalonia with significant influence over Avalonian geopolitics as well as stong ties with Kesh and Eastern Artemia. The economy is one of the country's most important assets, being that Osorra has mostly avoided deindustrialization. The higher middle income Osorrai economy is based on heavy industries, construction, mining, services, and agriculture. Its primary exports include semiconductors, electronics, ships, metals, industrial machinery, and consumer goods. Osorra remains an important industrial and scientific powerhouse. Osorrai foreign policy is generally multivector and realist supporting the maintenance of multipolarity across Anterra. Many countries have criticized Osorra for its poor human rights records and non representative institutions. Osorra denies these allegations and claims that the Osorrai government is more representative than other countries for not having "stifling" political parties, most nations still engage in trade with Osorra due to its large market and massive industrial capacity. Osorra enjoys tight relationships with Nanwen, Yarova, and Akitewa. The largest Osorrai religion is Tanets Solnsta.
Osorra is thought to have originated from the native word for mother, "Oso", and the term "Ori" which loosely translates to country. Words such as "Ossoi" would be used for other Osorrai polities. When the Arnica House took the country it would officially name it "Osorra", translating to the mother country.
The first traces of human habitation within Osorra have been dated back to 12,000 BCE, belived to come north from Tilenno. These tribes were primarily hunter gatherers, seeking game and various fruits in the vast rainforests of Osorra. There was a sharp cultural boundary created between the rainforest tribes, and those of the plains. It is unknown when agriculture first developed within Osorra, however various pottery has been found dating 8,000 BCE. It is believed various city states developed, cultivating small crops and fish. Osorrai civilization however would remain underdeveloped until crops such as corn or potatoes could be sucessfully cultivated.
The Oin exists partly in mythology, and party in fact. Many believe it to be not a centralized empire in any sense, but a "loose league" of many city states. The Oin was believed to be formed out of increasing warfare between cities, as well as their growing trade links. The first "Sapa" of the Oin is heavily mythologized. According to oral stories, he came out of Mount Sapa, with many eagles congregating around him. He claimed to be "of the essence of the Earth, Sun, and Skies", and would show the mostly disorganized people of the Earth the path towards communion with himself. The King of the territory around Mount Sapa would go to investigate, only to become dazzled by his mere presence. The King fell into delirium, and the Sapa became his teacher. He would soon invite many kings to learn from the Sapa. The Sapa taught the men about the reality of existance - all existance was merely energies flowing out of him, the first cause. These energies would eventually expand out into infinity and become nothingness unless they seek out the ways of the Viracocha through the following light and wisdom of the sun. Those who embrace the essence of the Viracocha according to the Sapa, forstall the Great Nothingness, and move closer towards reversing creation to become one with the Viracocha. The Sapa would then keep the kings in his monastery, hoping to create a bond between them, and educate the others about the truth of existance. The Kings left their kingdoms, spending years spreading the Sapa's creed. They were attacked by several "Mistaken" kings, who formed a league against them. Through the Sapa's wisdom they won many pyrric victories, however just because they had won, didn't stop the battle. The Sapa insisted that the rival kings must learn the Truth with all their hearts, and eventually sacrifice themselves to the Sun. After that task was done, the Sapa would sacrifice himself too, asking his sons to carry out his message.
Three days his death, he had a child with a women known as the First Acalla, and this child became the first Emperor of the Oin Empire. The child, known as the Osya Qhapaq would go on to lead the empire. The Osya Ohapaq would commission the building of great irrigation sytems, roads, and many monestaries. Osorrai monastic life is unique as all members are required to be apart of acllas, and men within those were required to live as women. He codified the laws of Osorrai faith on Quipus with the Strings of the Heavenly Law. The Osya Qhapaq began taking over other cities and forcing them to pay tributes to his domain. He would evntually take up to Mount Sapa before his death 60 years after birth. His son, Secound Qhapaq would follow in the footsteps of his father through the conquest of more territory, and the construction of infrastructure. He also began work on the grand city known as Cuzka, which would be built on the highlands near Mount Sapa. Many temples and the Summer Palace would be built on Cuzka, along with a road system to connect lowlying towns and villages to the grand capital. A vast library of quipu was constructed in Cuzka, estimated to the largest in premodern Avalonia. Osorra was thought to have high rates of literacy since quipu were cheap to create and reproduce compared to paper, and they have been invaluable in studying premodern Osorra.
The dull may say these are just strings
Vane playthings of the acallaI like this game!
Perhaps they are
But as a child under the tutelage of the cosmos
— A fragment from an Explication of Literacy
The Oin was believed to be one of the most advanced Bronze Age civilizations in Anterra with sosphistated infrastucture, a well educated population, and some of the highest populations during that period. The various nomadic boating cilivzations around Osorra would borrow Osorrai culture and in many cases pay tribute to the Qhapad. The Oin made privoal discoveries in math and the sciences, and were known for their extremely advanced surgical procedures.
The political economy was structured as a palace economy, where peasants would give a portion of their crop every year in exchange for protection and various goods from the estates. These estates were kings who pledged tribute to the Qhapaq, and once a year would send a few virgins as Aclla. The King's were usually elected by community elders, who could remove said Kings. During times of war or mass public works the Qhapaq could request men from the estates to participate in mit'a.
The Oin built grand schools of learning in Osorra, and constructed many libraries. They would be manned by the acalla, women who had give themselves to chastity or men who had given themselves to chastity and agreed to live as women. The Oin would built many vast temples surrounded by a moat in the center of their cities, which were places of worship for the Inti. These temples served as places of worship, public baths, and the official residences for the acalla.
O' great water nymph!
Studying the Gods, the Angels, and the Cosmos beneath our feet
Recording it on strings so even when the sun dies
Our Sapa shall be remembered!
The Oin began the cultivation of crops such as corn and potato, which would be stored for times of great calamities. As far as we can tell their diet was primarily based on cornbread and various beans soups and stews. Meat was seen as taboo to the Oin as llamas were treated with religious devotion. The only meat they would consume were imported turkeys during holidays.
What we know about Oin art is quite limited since many of their drawings have succumbed to nature. However we still know about the plays of the Oin, many of which were tragedies. The plays focused on the mercy of god, the inevitability of decay, and the cost of sin. Their tragedies would influence many novels in Yarova and remain classics across the world.
Initally the Oin was quite stable, being ruled by the Five Good Qhapaqs, who were known for their good judgement and intelligence. They would work together with the local kings and commision many great public works. However the Quenti Qhapag who came afterwards was weak willed and heavily influenced by the acalla in the court. They would marry him off to the mischievious Cuxi who led his mind astray. The Quenti Qhapag would demand subordinates who failed to heed his word sacrifice themselves and burned many quipus which he disagreed with. He was removed with a peasant uprising and replaced with the General Atoc Qhapag. Atoc would have to repair much of the damage done by Quenti and attempted to remove Cuxi. Cuxi fled to the deserts far north never to be seen again. Atoc began the period known as the Reign of the Military Chiefs. During this period the Oin was centralized with many local kings gradually losing power. It developed a large army and began conquests deep into barbarian lands.
Atoc and his sons would massively expand the Oin Empire and spread its customs far and wide. He would also construct many roads and create a network for scholars to send quipus and communicate with each other. Archeologists have found evidence of Oin civlization possessing advanced smelting methods. The Oin also created the first Osorrai political philosphy. Primarily concerned with ethics and the human soul, the Oin believed a man should focus on giving and building to the broader civilization focusing on the good. The Oin wrote many treatises on psychology and the nature of the mind many of which are sadly lost today. The Oin developed several competiting schools of thought.
Atoc gradually grew more opposed to the acalla, even as both expanded. The acalla critized the army's treatment of the Oin's new subjects and critized his illegitmacy as an emperor. The conflict between the acalla and the Atoc Dynasty would'nt grow serious until the reign of his 4th son. His 4th son was obsessed with military affairs and expanding the empire, neglecting the logistics of the expanding empire. Several revolts would engulf the Oin and he Atoc IV would gradually grow extremely unpopular. An unknown eunuch who was in the acalla would assasinate him and placed the nation under a council of acalla. The triumvate as it was called would implement many needed reforms for the empire to expand with its growing size but always fought over the question of the next emperor. With no reliable bloodlines and the government vowing not to place any military figures an emperor would need to be found that was not in the existing high ranks of the state, as to avoid political instability. They finally decided on grooming a slave boy known as the Chiguan. Chiguan came to rule after the council and would deal with the empire's logistcal programs. Chiguan stopped all further expansion and negoitated peace with the neighboring empires. He created acalla monestaries and various legal instutions in the new territories, as well as signing treaties with various tribes.
Disillusion of the Oin
The political instability that gripped the Oin following Chuigun’s death led to the Empire slowly dissolving. Kingdoms in the periphery broke away while closer to the core local chiefs and acalla began engaging in political games. Generals would raise their armies independent of the central state while lords would fail to pay taxes. Gradually the capacity of the Oin broke apart and it was unable to resist later Teruko invasions.
Sensing the instability of the Oin Teruko lords began to send raids. These raids heavily weakened the legimacy of the Oin in the eyes of the people while empowering petty Lords. According to historical records the Lord of what is now Okarina allied with these northern invaders and led a revolt. This rebellion while eventually defeated led to the severe weakening of the Oin. The Oin was forced to rely on disloyal military generals to mantain its integrity after the revolt. Ever more incurrsions and revolts would gradually weaken its grip until Teruko Lords entered the capital in 2000 BCE.
Period of Teruko Vassalage
With the capture of Cuzka by Teruko, the Oin was no more. It was divided among various Teruko warlords. Details for this period are limited, since the qiupu record almost completely fell apart. What we are aware of, however, is there was widespread plague and hunger at this time. Some demographers estimate over 1/3 of the Oin’s population perished.
These warlords ruled quite brutishly and brutally wantonly slaughtering innocent civilians. Many locals were enslaved or murdered. This period is seen as the start of the Tuta - or Dark Ages in Osorrai history.
Rising out of the once great city of Cuzka, Pachakutic was an ambitious nobleman who sought to rebuild the once great Oin. He built up the city’s milita and conquered many surrounding cities. From this base he came to control important metal trade routes and acquire great wealth. He grew a massive army and eventually moved on northern coastal cities. After this, he moved towards the Southern rainforest.
Pachakutic was renowned for his extreme martial skill and strategic intelligence. Many of the corrupt lords fell before his sword. He sought to recreate the Oin Empire and would mobilize vast portions of the populations on vast megaprojects. He began the start of a grand wall with what is now Tilenno to keep "barbaric" elements. His grand tombs are still popular attractions to this day.
Pachakutic most contraversially pushed the heresy that the Sapa was the only god and other gods were merely images of the Sapa. He was similar in philosophy to legalist rulers of East Kesh and believed in harsh rules and heavy punishments. His regime featured many executions.
With Pachakutic’s death it was unknown who would inherit his legacy. His polity was now the most powerful in Perala and could quickly unite the disparate kingdoms. His eldest son ruled well for 30 years before being assassinated by a member of the acalla. His younger sons based around different cities organized their own armies and fought for power.
There were 4 sons, one based around Cuzka, one around what is today Kakhab, what is today Zalivkov, and another based to the east of the Intoi Mountains. The fought for around 30 years, destroying much of their fathers legacy but building great armed military machines.
Finally acalla negotiated peace between the warring brothers close to their death, and a semifedual union was created. Their sons became "co-rulers" of a newly created Empire by 300 AD- but in reality the acalla was in control of the empire.
This period was known as the "Tuta" not due to high levels of death or plague - far outpaced by previous periods of Osorrai history - but instead the level of backwardness and low levels of technological sophistication. The acalla ruled during this time and enacted a heavy degree of spiritual austerity.
Osorra during this period saw its cities depopulated and the monastaries become the primary site of political power. Osorra was dominated by petty fedual lords who ran plantations and extracted tribute from their subjects. Cities increasingly began to be beset by animal attacks from the forest as the rainforest encroached on them.
This period was perhaps one of the longest in Osorrai history, lasting until 900AD.
The Ossoi Empire was formed due to the lord of the coastal city of Zalivkov, Axateqem, growing extremely rich from trade with Kesh. He raised an army and expropriated the local acalla. He moved on the entire northern seaboard and the provinces of Okarina. Then he moved to capture Cuzka.
Axateqem was from an ethnic minority and believed in a variety of religious heresies. He attracted a great deal of hatred from the local acalla but him strong, and the acalla weak, they were quickly defeated. He forced many of the acalla monestaries to fall in line with his teachings. He would form the Ossoi Empire - the second great Osorrai Empire.
The Ossoi completed a series of border walls with what is now Tilenno. They engaged in a great deal of megaprojects early in their reign - building many grand pyramids and roads. In 973 AD the Ossoi Empire would conduct a the first census and compiled detailed statistics on the Osorrai population. Millions of peasants were recruited into grand labor armies to build cities for the king.
In 1000 Axateqem's Son would commission the construction of the glorious palace of Cuzka. A moat was dug out of the ground and the palace was laid out on an axial plan. It was made up of 5 major pyarmids with various tunnels connecting them. These pyramids were the largest in the world at the time. This massive palace complex would house thousands of nobles. In the center chamber lay the king, as well as great underground tombs for Osorra’s kings.
The Ossoi Empire became a trade powerhouse and had a monopoly on many rare goods. It made many neighboring states its client states and interevened in the situtation within Tilenno. Its great power attracted digtaries far and wide.
The Ossoi would attract audiences from both East Kesh and the major Avalonian kingdoms at the time. They would write stories of its great wealth and splendor - its grand massive cities, massive pyramids, and diverse peoples. Rumors even spread to parts of the world that had no idea about Avalonia.
As the Empire grew it became extremely pacifist and inward seeking. The Kings of the Ossoi wanted to avoid the overextension that doomed the Oin. While extremely wealthy it only focused on industry. The acalla regained its powerful position from the 14th century onwards and began indulging in carnal luxury pleasures.
This growing corruption eventually lead to the decline of the empire and the loss of its once great wealth.
Romance of the Ossoi Princes
Around the 16th century a middling prince around the East known as Ouchin grew tired of this extreme and growing corruption. He allied with several generals and caused a revolt in a border province. At a stronger phase of the Empire, this might’ve been a small issue, the corruption faced by the army allowed him to gain a large degree of territory. He was eventually able to conquer all the Eastern plains to the Intoi.
Near Kakhab, a concubine seduced a powerful prince known as Qugir to raise his own army and stop the middling prince due to the weakness of the army. The main army grew confused and viewed this as a revolt - soon the entire nation was embroiled in war. The chief general Maita overthrew the king and installed himself as military dictator. Qugir’s position was perilous and he had to ally with the northern acalla around Okarina.
Ouchin tried to sue for peace but was only repulsed by Maita. He allied with the northern acalla and tried to march towards Cuzka. They led a siege but were soon repulsed by Maita. Qugir used this to attack Ouchin, and Ouchin was being attacked by two fronts. However due to his massive amounts of strategic depth he was able to lure both armies far into the country. Maita lost Zalivkov to the acalla and eventually Ouchin seized Cuzka. Qugir was now on the retreat, being attacked on both sides.
Thankfully for him Maita resurged, leading various scattred attacks from bases in the Intoi Mountains. Ouchin’s army was unable to cope with warfare in the mountains and stopped advancing. The weak acalla was unable to advance. Unfortunely, Maita recruited many irregulars, who soon assasinated him and took over.
Now, his army was being ruled by Punai the Barbarian. Punai kicked Ouchin from the Intoi but was unable to advance into his lands due to the distinct terrian. Ouchin and Qugir agreed to an alliance to stop the barbarian Lord. Over the next 10 years they engaged in a series of attacks to weaken his forces. These anaconda attacks led to his slow destruction.
However after defeating him, Ouchin and Qigur immeditately began fighting again. Many of Punai’s men created their own armies and created kingdoms in the choas. This period - from around 1590-1600 was the most violent period of the war with widespread looting and arson.
The acalla stepped in to have Ouchin and Qigur declare peace, they eventually united with each other and agreed to a meeting.
Ouchin and Qigur agreed to form the Bacti League, wherein Qugir and 2 members of his families would gain lordship over coastal provinces, Ouchin would control the East, and Cuzka would be under the acalla. This arrangement would create the Bacti League.
The Bacti League had to deal with the new situtation of encroaching Artemian coloniaism. In response it shut off its borders and adopted a closed door policy. It enacted a hardline policy against the mercantile classes, even killing many of them during the Great Mercantile Purge.
The Bacti heavily suppressed the printed word and tried to retain the quipu - despite local interference. The Bacti state was extremely repressive against new ideas and tried to close off the country.
Plagues also emerged during their rule that killed large amounts of people. The Bacti state was dominated by very corrupt close minded nobles who used these plagues as excuses to not leave their royal quarters despite their peoples suffering.
Several rebellions calling for openness and modernization were brutully suppressed. Despite this humanist "new learning" flourished inside the Bacti despite suppression by authorities. Many subjects of the Bacti would flee to become foreign sailors or mercenaries.
To the West, Yarova was debating its options. While it had gained a great deal of inland colonies it had failed to get a foothold in the overseas colonial rush. In response Yarova sent expeditions abroad. Yarovar missionaries reached Osorra around the early 1830s. While, normally, as foreigners they would be kicked out they befriended the local acalla and were given shelter and residence.
Gradually Yarovar missionaries gained a foothold around Zalivkov. The Arnica House used these missionaries to bring in foreign trade. By acting as the only open Osorrai port they became extremely wealthy and were able to raise an army. The Arnica House slowly became more powerful and would bribe states to gain power in the Bacti League.
The other members of the Bacti League grew suspisious of Arnica intentions. The Arnica House slowly cut ties and executed spies and informants from other kingdoms. By the 1860s many Yarovar ships were entering Arnica ports bringing weaponry.
Wars of Osorrai Reunification
With the bringing in of Yarovar weaponry and generals, the Qoya of the Arnica House launched an attack on the rest of the Bacti League. He had a modern army, armed with machine guns, artillery, and modern muntions. He was quickly able to crush the other kingdoms, however in an assymetric fashion.
The brutal wars of Osorrai Reunification cost millions of lives and led to the widespread destruction of the country. Industrialized warfare brought levels of carnage never seen before. With his capture of Cuzka in 1867 the ruler of Arnica became the effective ruler of Osorra. He was forced however to mantain a military of Yarovars, accept many Yarovar advisiors, and most importantly let a foreign corporation control his kingdom’s finances. He was a puppet in all but name.
Period of Vojiskiy Vassalage
With Yarova's effective conquest of Osorra, the isolationist policy was lifted. Due to the destruction of the war, large section of Eastern Osorra had been cleared of human habitation. Millions of immigrants moved in seeking fertile farmland and pasture. Also due to rumors of gold near the Intoi Mountains - a massive gold rush occured. The traditional population of Osorra was completely displaced from this period. Osorra’s cities were totally rebuilt under a Vojisky plan and vast industries were constructed.
The massive influx of immigrants completely changed Osorra, which was being overrun. The country became a hotbed of criminality and drug usage. Numerous secret socities set up shop - hoping to gain power from the "secrets within". The Qoya became completely derelict from his ruling duties and gave all power to his advisors. The bureacracy was mostly entirely staffed by Yarovar technocrats.
Some natives tried to lead riots or revolts but were brutually crushed. Yarova constructed gigantic plantations for much of the native population to work in and bring resources to the mother country.
Osorrai religion was completely reshaped during this period. A saint known as Kapralov Artemiy Timurovich came to Osorra around 1870 seeking to convert natives. He soon discovered many similarities between their beliefs and the emerging beliefs of "cosmism" in Osorra. Thus he created a new faith known as Tanets Solstana: which believes the universe exists in an immanent unity that has been broken up and it is man’s job to remake and reunite the cosmos in the image of God.
This period led to the modernization of Osorra, yet its fall. It ceased to exist as a civilization but instead as a colonial protectorate. Its native population was enslaved and displaced by a wealthy Yarovar planter class. In the East vast tracts of land was taken over by wealthy cattle owners who lived better than the wealthiest kings. To the North came a massive gold rush that caused millions to settlers to come in a frenzy. Osorra was a "frontier" region with crazed amounts of financial speculation and interest all seeking to remake its once pure land.
When civil war came to Yarova, overseas colonies like Osorra were initially unaffected. The colonial bureaucracy contained as usual - unaffected by the changed abroad. However under the surface tensions were brewing. A vast nationalist movement had developed and lead various riots against the colonial government. Also, ambitious officals sought more power and autonomy from the Yarovar monarchy. One of these, a noble known as Oleg Kozlov took increasing power over the Osorrai government. He maneuvered to grow his power in the absence of direction from abroad and purged all officials that would go against him. Eventually he launched a sailors mutiny on foreign Yarovar vessels and declared independence as the new Tsar. Oleg raided the palace and executed the Old Qoya - forming the People's State of Osorra.
The People's State of Osorra held elections in 1924. The Menshevik Party won these by a clear majority. The Menshevik Government announced the start of Sotsial'nyy Pod'yem - generally clearing up the worst excesses of colonialism. Infrastructure was improved, crime was reduced, and ethnic groups were treated better. Yet, it remained quite corrupt. The Menshevik Government was closely tied to Osorrai industrialists and banker families.
Jazzy Rose Period
The 30s and early 40s in Osorra are called the "Jazzy Rose Period". This period saw an exploision in the economy as Osorra was no longer compliant with Yarovar protectionist policies and opened up to the international market. Osorrai industrialists opened up massive plants dedicated to the production of steel, automobiilies, and chemicals. This period also saw the rise of massive gangsters who ran drugs from Osorrai ports to other nations.
Many movies were made during this period, with the Osorrai film industry arising. They showcase many of the social issues of this period, as well as the massive industrial progress. Skyskrapers dotted the skies in major Osorrai cities, cars filled the streets, and a mass market developed.
Osorra became more geopolitically active as a result, constructing a massive navy that became active in the Coral Sea. It engaged in confrontations with other major powers like Brigantica yet war never became a reality. A massive arms industry was constructed, a priority of Oleg Kozlov, and the country became a formidable force in global affairs.
Despite the massive progress of this period, it was extremely imbalanced economically. Many industrialists were indebted by the end of the Jazzy Rose Period and domestic tensions ramped up due to the advent of television and radio.
The stock market crashed in 1942 and left many of Osorra's top companies struggling. Oleg Kozlov refused to bail them out or intervene in the economy, leading to an economic depression. Millions of people fell out of work and massive plants went out of business.
Volkovists were the main faction set to gain from the economic malaise and organized a formidble political force. They had support among many gnerals and officals of the army who were tied of the liberal and progressive policies of the Menshevik Government. In 1946 they stormed the palace and deposed Oleg Kozlov from power.
People's State of Osorra
To deal with the depression, the Volkovists nationalized many key Osorrai companies and pursued a massive stimulus program. They announced a hardline policy on crime -arresting many gang members and breaking up the drug trade. They also effective turned Osorra into a party-state by requring Volkovist committees in schools, companies, and other insitutions.
The People's State built up a massive highway system, the first of its kind, to connect Osorrai cities. They rebuilt Osorrai cities in the name of technical efficency and industry. The Volkovists believed in total industrial coordination to increase the wealth of the country and eliminated "disefficencies" whereever they saw them.
The People's State drastically increased armament and centralized the previously disperate and broken up military industry. They nationalized the nation's agriculture system and placed it under the direction of technocrats. The industry was further mechanized with a system of goverment systems in place to protect farmers.
By the 50s the People's State was the emergent power in Avalonia and furthered its international image by leading the independence of the Kitiko Islands. It played a key role in Avalonian geopolitics and fought for decolonization. It sent arms and equipment to various independence wars around the continent.
Osorra also became a leader in "big science" through state giants like Sosya. Thousands of scientists and researchers congrated into cities like Kakhab where they engaged in cutting edge research. The country became a leader in numerous scientific areas as a result and made key strides in areas like computing.
Eventually big science led to the "Three Satellites, One Man, One Bomb" project in 1964. It was extremely ambitious, seeking a nuclear bomb, a man on the moon, and a world-class space program. Its growing power led to tensions with its neighbors.
Collapse of the People's State
Politics and Government
The Empire of Osorra is a monarchy, ruled by the Solnechnyy Tsar'. However since the Tsar is not of age the country is under a triumvirate. However in de jure terms the Tsar delegates his powers to the Imperial Houses, various advisory bodies that advise the Tsar. Two houses exist, the Outer and Inner House. The Inner House is made up of the military, nobility, and various corporate figures. The Outer House is popularly elected by the people. The Outer Imperial House controls the power of the purse, while the Inner is the only one allowed to propose laws. Most laws are created by the Imperial Houses and approved by the Tsar. The structure of the Imperial Houses is unlike other countries since Osorra limits participation in legal political societies to the upper aristocracy known as the Pomeshchiks. Consequently, Osorri politics is made up of many small social societies instead of large political parties - who join into loose cliques. The Triumvirate currently takes on the role of approving the decisions of the Imperial Houses and overseeing their activities.
The non-landed classes exercise their power primarily through religious and charitable organizations - often controlled by wealthy oligarchs[a]. These organizations are united into the All-Osorra Trade Union, a powerful trade union with a large degree of influence. Osorra's working classes have limited avenues of political organization, often reliant on the support of extremely powerful oligarchs to achieve concessions. Many scholars have theorized Osorra has a "high low vs middle" class setup[b].
Osorra's judicial system is quite unique for having a great deal of military influence. In criminal courts most cases are administered by military tribunals, these have 3 soldiers from the community deciding on criminal matters. They utilize common law, effectively giving the military full jurisdiction to decide matters of Osorrai law. The military also runs many of Osorra's prisons, where it is alleged they utilize forced labor. This role has come under particular scrutiny due to the recent War on Drugs. Osorra's civil court system is quite complex and layered with both the federal state and oblasts having their own court system. Usually at the lower level a district magistrate operates while in higher courts the title of judge is received. Osorrai civil courts process most white collar crime incidents.
Osorra's state ministries are under the direct control of the Tsar or as of now the triumvirate. The Tsar can select various state ministers in the Imperial Council, where officials such as the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Finance, etc are located in. His picks must be approved by the Imperial Houses before they take their positions. Many functions related to communication and transportation are managed by the military, who own many state companies and selects the board members of said companies. The military operates these functions relatively autonomously and has been unwilling to cede them to the civilian government. State companies operated by the civilian government are operated by the Council of State Asset Management.
Osorra is commonly thought to be neither authoritarian or democratic, but anocratic. The country allows dissidence and political opposition to manifest, however it limits those who can legitimately question state power. Without voice, other groups resort to collaboration with interest groups with a voice, or rejection of sovereign power. Since the end of the military dictatorship, Osorra has seen numerous insurgencies and armed groups attempting to overthrow the state, and is in a state of constant warfare in the periphery. This never-ending war is known as the Beskonechnaya Noch to many Osorrais and scholars. Osorra is politically unstable, not only externally opposed, but internally divided between neo-fascist Orlovists and neoliberal Mikhaylovists. The leaders of the two de-facto rule the country in a diarchic nature, at least until the next Tsar comes of age. Some scholars note that the dominance and repression of the armed forces is what keeps Osorra together. Also Klava, a mysterious figure, is seen as the mediator between the two major factions.
The Tsar is the offical head of state of Osorra, and has limited temporal powers. The Tsar thought to be in Communion with the Father, and descending from the holy line of the Son in Tanets Solntsa, giving them absolute powers over religious affairs. The Tsar represents the "spirit" of Osorra and has absolute say over theology, aesthetics, epistemology, and the overall nature of forms. The Tsar can also create great works, and operates massive charity organizations to give to the poor. The Tsar is the leader of all Solntsas Churches and can appoint bishops or cardinals. Osorra is commonly thought of as an imperial cult.
Due to the Tsar's spirtual position, all law is thought to derive from their great ancestor, Manco Cápac, in Osorrai religious tradition. His bloodline is thought to be sovereign over Osorrai law, however in a commisarial way - they must aim to maintain the constitution and the Osorrai state as such. During normal periods, power is to be given to various associations of nobles in the Imperial Houses, which actually carry out legal rulings. Also all in the state must respect the constitutions and the Holy Ghost, even the Tsar himself. However in event of a great cataclysm the Tsar is allowed to assume absolute powers and alter the constitution.
The "Tsar" of Osorra has operated under different names. First they were known as the Sapa, later the Qoya under Yarovan rule, and after the collapse of the military dictatorship the Tsar. While numerous families have claimed this position, it has very rarely actually been held by one claimant. Since the end of The Wars of Osorrai Unification however, the Ayara family has held it. While the Ayara dynasty was forced into exile during the military dictatorship, it was reinstalled during the 90s. The current Tsar is the young 13 year old, Izhi Ayara who is under the care of Ikanov Zakharovich.
The Armed Forces of Osorra is the military of Osorra and is under the command of the Osorrai High Command. The Osorrai Command is made up of 5 generals, who are among the most powerful men in the country. The military makes decisions through consensus amount the 5 generals, although the Lieutenant General is allowed to make decisions if consensus cannot be reached. The military has 600k active troops and about 800k paramilitary in total, with 5 branches: The Osorrai Army, the Osorrai Air Forces, the Osorrai Navy, Okhrana, and the Paramilitary of National Self Defense. The largest division in the armed forces by far is the Paramilitary, with around 800k members in total. The paramilitary operates around various irregular regional forces, who are semi-regularly trained and can support professional forces if needed. They also exist to put down rebellions and control peripheral regions within the country. Paramilitary forces are enlisted in the military's various megaprojects, and its existence is seen as somewhat of a "job program" to support poor Osorrai.
The second-largest force is the Osorrai Army with 350,000 troops. The army since the loss in the Osorra Tilenno War has significantly shifted its doctrine, moving away from structured formations, and towards flexible and mobile formations suited towards the unique geography of Avalonia. As such the army has focused on developing light mechanized infantry systems, using small APCs and even trucks that can transverse rough terrain. The army has also invested in various missile defense systems to attempt to "trap" an enemy force and reduce their morale. These reforms have made Osorra's army an extremely flexible force, which in unison with airpower, serves as a powerful deterrent to any attacks. The army operates in a node system, where each company is expected to operate as a self-contained unit which can sustain itself if needed. The army in recent years has involved itself in conflict with many of the country's drug cartels with the assistance of countries such as Brigantica.
Osorra has a large airforce, made up of hundreds of planes, primarily older models. The airforce has 100,000 personnel in total. The primary focus of the airforce is to harass enemy supply lines, shock and awe, and scouting of enemy forces. The navy has 150,000 personnel with around -.
The military's most infamous department is the militarized police and intelligence force known as the Okhrana. The Okhrana was formed in 1990 in response to the massive September Riots with the merger of all militarized federal police departments and intelligence apparatus into one unified apparatus. The newly created Okhrana began fighting against many radical groups and forcing them into hiding. They would engage in a variety of repressive actions to protect the fragile Osorrai state including the shooting down of many protestors. The Okhrana also worked to rebuild Osorra's former spy network, posting in numerous countries. However, with the start of foreign intervention in the Beskonechnaya Noch Osorra was forced to downsize the Okhrana and refocus it on the drug trade. With the advent of the internet, the Okhrana created a vast apparatus of internet surveillance and a limited system of censorship to remove "libelous content". The Okhrana has infiltrated many civilian organizations in Osorra and is seen as a critical bulwark in keeping the state stable.
Osorra is a member of the Yunnan Pact and observer to KTEC. Its closest allies remain South Kesh and Nanwen along with strong ties with Akiteiwa and Kodeshia. Osorra enjoys strong trade financial and economic ties with Yarova and Tilenno but have many diplomatic disagreements. Also, concerned about an overwhelming level Yarovar expatriates - Osorra cut visa free access in 2015. Many of the monarchies of Avalonia such as Tavaluda, Shenewa, and Siwi Kondre have criticized Osorra and strained ties due to the Expulsion of the Osorrai Monarchy. Shenewa has been the most vocal about the matter and hosts numerous Osorrai monarchist dissidents on its soil. Osorra levels no sanctions or visa embargoes on any nation except for Selengeria which in 2007 it cut ties with due to pressure from KTEC. The Osorrai legislature is debating passing sanctions on Siwi Kondre due to human rights abuses from the civil war. Osorra is the only major power in Avalonia to publicly voice diplomatic support for the Communists and has offered leading figures asylum from persecution.
Osorra practices a realistic foreign policy based on the expansion of international commerce and increasing globalization. Perhaps in reality however the nation could be seen as following a mercantile policy of expanding its exports. The country has voiced concerns when nationalist governments take power in Yarova and call for them to "respect the rights of minority groups". The country aligns with KTEC interests and is against the nationalism or etatist policies of NSC or ECOSEAS states. Osorra signed into law a series of tariffs against ECOSEAS imports in 2018 to protect Osorrai agricultural industries.
v NOT ACCURATE NEEDS TO BE REDONE v
|Country||Status||Current state of relations||Mutual Embassies||Visa Requirement|
|Kaya||Allied||Osorra and Kaya - while vicious rivals historically - are today major allies within the NSC. The two cooperate heavily in military, economic, and diplomatic affairs and help the NSC project power throughout the continent.||Yes||No|
|Tiperyn||Allied||Osorra and Kaya - while vicious rivals historically - are today major allies within the NSC. The two cooperate heavily in military, economic, and diplomatic affairs and help the NSC project power throughout the continent.||Free Trade||No|
Osorra has a higher middle-income economy with a GDP of around 2.8 trillion nominal. The basis for the economy was built through the mass modernization of the 30s and 40s, which saw Osorra create massive industries and achieve a high degree of technological sophistication. Threatened by the rest of Avalonia, the country built a massive Osorrai industrial system to provide for the needs of the defense industry. With the collapse of Communism in the 90s the country saw a major economic contraction. However the situtation stabilized in the later 2000s and Osorra became a global leader in many fields. The economy is based around heavy industries, agriculture, and technology. Most of the nation's industries, mines, and farms are owned by a small class of oligarchs who launder much of the money outside the nation. As a result, Osorra is one of the most unequal nations in Anterra, with a GINI of .56. Osorra does have some vibrant and innovative sectors, however, such as the technology, telecommunications, and defense. Some regions of the country such as Kakhab Hi-Tech Zone have seen rapid GDP growth that far exceeds the rest of the country. Much of the nations wealth is concentrated in the major 3 cities - Cuzka, Kakhab, and Zalivkov
Osorra's economy is dominated by family enterprises, the military and state owned companies. Ownership within Osorrai companies is heavily obfuscated with entities using a wide degree of shell companies. There is a wide deal of political influence, as the military posts cells in private firms, allowing it to learn about and control private companies. The military has promised that its political interference will not "overrule" shareholders nor the companies' profitability, and in more recent years has acted more transparently about its activities to soothe shareholders. However, in terms of regulation, Osorra has a very libertarian policy stance. The Osorrai government holds a stake in many companies through the Osorrai Pension Fund, and National Diversification Fund which in recent years has allowed the state to wean of the mining as a source of state revenue. Osorra is still broadly seen as an economy under the control of the state, since the state holds a large chunk of Osorra's total corporate holdings, however, without any centralized planning body, these assets are controlled for the benefit of private actors within the state, or connected to the state. The economy is primary under 4 families, the Novikovas, the Egorovs, the Aslanovs, and the Mikhaylovs.
Osorra's oligarchs dominate the Osorrai private economy and their influence does not stop there, as they own stake in semi public firms. The oligarchs are a small group of businessmen with enormous sums of wealth, often numbering in the tens of billions. Most of them are primarily focused on the mining agriculture, or heavy industrial sector but the wealthiest oligarchs, such as Karp Egorov, have diversified portfolios in areas such as telecommunications and defense. Karp runs Karpacom, a massive cellular carrier in Northern Avalonia with over a two hundred million subscribers as of 2020. The oligarchs often come from former military, intelligence, or government backgrounds with many connections within the state. Some sources even list Osorra's high ranking generals as oligarchs, since they are often known for using state-owned companies for their benefit. The oligarchs are extremely unpopular within the country, due to the extreme corruption they enable.
Largest Osorrai Companies
|1||Osorra Mining Corporation||Metals|
|3||Osorra International Trade Market||Trade|
Osorra is among the most unequal nations in Avalonia, both with extreme wealth and income inequality. The income GINI is over .5 and it is thought the wealth GINI is around .7 or .8. Suprisingly, Osorrai inequality is not simply the result of wealth concentration among oligarchs but also concentration among the urban middle classes. Numbering about 30-40 million they make up 1/3 of the Osorrai population but these top 33% of earners take over 70% of Osorrai incomes and control more than 90% of the nations wealth. The middle class has seen their fortunes rise with communist transition, employed in large Osorrai or foreign multinationals or the state sector. They earn developed or close to developed world wages. Much literature has called this class the "forgotten ones", neglected by the new Osorrai state and forced into insecure part time work. Furthermore because of the homelessness ban, many of them are forced into public housing projects.
The top Osorrai 1% does not collect much in incomes but instead makes their wealth from capital gains. The amount of wealth held by the Osorrai upper classes is yet unknown as much of their wealth is hidden abroad. Osorrai billionaires have caused housing priced to skyrocket in cities across the world.
Osorra is one of the largest producers of precious metals in Anterra, having large reserves of copper, bauxite, silver, gold, jadeite, diamonds, tin, lithium, and iron. The country's mining reserves are primary under the control of a public-private partnership known as Osorra Mining Corporation, which owns most of the nations reserves. Mining is an important source of revenue for the Osorrai state, especially due to widespread tax evasion. In 2019 it was estimated 3% of government revenue was derived from the mining industry. Since the 2000s Osorra has put at least 25% of its total mining revenues in the Osorrai Sovereign Wealth Fund to attempt to stabilize government revenues from commodity shocks.
Osorra's mining industry primary operates around the mountains and in the Intoi Desert, displacing many native groups in the process. Concerns have emerged over the environmental impacts of the mining industry, however the Osorrai government has seldom agreed to comment. The growth in lithium demand in particular has brought massive environmental strain, with many communities reporting over 2/3 of their clean water has been tainted by the mining industry. The military has strong connections with the mining industry, and has often acted to clear entire villages to speed up mine construction. The industry is seen as one of the most corrupt in Osorra, but due to the nation's reliance on mining, government action to contain its excesses has been limited.
Osorra's energy sector is primarily controlled by the army, in particular, the army-owned company National Institute for Power Delivery. Osorra has some of the cheapest energy in the world, due to both the large presence of nuclear power, and subsidization by the military apparatus. However, power availability is uneven with many rural areas cut off from power. The largest consumer of power is the industrial sector.
Osorra's energy grid is primarily dominated by hydropower (20%) and nuclear power (55%), with coal and natural gas making up the rest. Osorra has limited wind and solar, unable to compete with cheap nuclear energy. The country consumes X GW annually, with a per capita consumption of X. Osorra has been praised throughout the rest of Anterra for its embrace of clean and renewable energy, however concerns exist over the military's handling of nuclear technology. From the 60s-70s Osorra had a nuclear weapons program which was only ended due to the Osorra-Tilenno War. Since then all of Osorra's nuclear facilities are subject to inspections, must allow permanent inspector presence, and partial privatization.
In Osorra access to power is limited to some groups. 95% of the population has access to energy, many of them living in affluent cities. However, in many of the native reservations, access to electricity is limited. Osorra in recent has attempted to expand capacity as a result and aims for 100% energy coverage by 2030.
Osorra has to import a significant portion of its fuel, but with the advent of hydraulic fracking, the country has been able to be more energy self-sufficient. Osorra is a world leader in fracking technologies with significant government support for the technology. In recent years the country has even become a significant exporter of fracking equipment, chemicals, and expertise. OsorraPec is among the largest investor in both Yarovar oil sands and Mehmet's hard to reach hydrocarbon basins.
The first large scale industries were created in the 1880s by entrepreneurs from mainland Vojisky. These industries were primarily about weaving textiles and refining agricultural products from Osorrai plantations. The Imperial Steel Corporation would build a plant in Kakahb in 1890 - one of the largest in its era. When Vojisky rule ended in Osorra, inventors and technicians were able to form cooperatives to manage many of the former Vojisky plants. These cooperatives - renamed Organizations for Maximal Technical Production - would rapidly build up the nation's industries from the 1920s-40s. Inspired by the utopian ideals of Tanets Solstana, they sought to make Osorra an industrial powerhouse. The Menshevik government gave them extremely cheap credit and debased its own currency, a major cause in the Osorrai Depression in the 40s. Later they would be bailed out by the new Volkovist government, on the precondition that the bailout would lead to their effective nationalization. The Volkovist government began rational state planning to distribute the products of Osorrai industry. They would reorient production towards armanents and capital goods in an attempt to catch up with the major powers of Anterra. Osorra would construct massive shipbuilding, aerospace, rolling stock, electronics, and automotive industres in the 60s and 70s. With the 80s however the peace deal forced Osorra to restructure these industries back towards consumer goods. The shipbuilding and aerospace industries began a slow decline. The electronics industry however grew by leaps and bounds, redirecting military production towards consumer computers that it sold to both foreign and domestic customers. With the collapse of communism the aerospace industry was gutted through new deregulatory reforms. Yazov Novikova worked to prevent the semiconductor sector from seeing a similar fate and helped protect them. The aerospace industry today is primarily focused on military applications.
Today Osorra has large heavy industries in the areas of metallurgy, telecommunications, semiconductors, electronics, nuclear, industrial machinery, petrochemicals, automobiles, shipbuilding, and rolling stock. Today industry makes up around 35% of the GDP of Osorra and industrial products like semiconductors are the country's most important exports after metals. By net revenues the largest industry is the smelting industry, which turns raw ores into various alloys that are later exported on the international market. By sophistication and net margins the semiconductor sector is the largest, primary based in Kakhab.
The largest Osorrai industrial company is Sapa - which owns industries across a variety of sectors. Sapa is one of the world's largest producers of machine tools - and has interests as far as aviation engines to home appliances. The company is valued at over 100 billion dollars and has revenues in excess of 70 billion. Sapa has acquired many ex-state owned factories and design bureaus and restructured them to produce globally competitive products. Outside of large conglomerates like Sapa, Sosya, or AlOsya - Osorra has a variety of small and medium sized secondary industries to provide parts for these major industrial giants.
The Osorrai Government extends a great deal of assistance to industry through cheap energy, low interest loans, tax breaks, and subsidies. The government operates an office to coordinate industrial development and industrial policy. Every 3 Years this office publishes reports on the nation's development and plans for future modernization. Osorra also has an extensive technical school system to train workers.
The agricultural sector is a comparatively small part of the Osorrai economy at around 9.5% of GDP - or 280 billion dollars. Regardless it remains an industry the country is world famous for and one of the countries most important industries. Osorra's primary crops are sweet potatoes, maize, turkey, beef, peppers, rice, soybeans, tomatoes, and tobacco. The country is mostly made up of arable land or has developed extensive irrigation infrastructure in areas with limited water supplies. The country has one of the most industrialized food systems in Anterra and its food science industry is bleeding edge.
Osorra's largest food companies include Osorra Standard (OC/Осорра Стандарт), Osorra Soy (OCoя/Осорра Соя), General Institute for Genetic Research (OИГИ /Общий Институт Генетических Исследований), General Enterprise for Pepper Trading (ГППTП/Генеральное Предприятие По Tорговле Перцем). These companies are primary involved in trade of agricultural commodities, processing of food, and financing for farmers but do not directly grow crops themselves. Farmers in Osorra are seen as a small yet privileged class with extensive wealth. Most farming families are dynastic and hold massive plots usually acquired by their forefathers by Yarovar land grants. They employ a large class of mostly native migrant laborers who have little rights and are forced to move around and look for work. Farm laborers in Osorra are underpaid and usually rely on services from the military to survive.
The Osorrai agriculture industry has been fraught with controversy and conspiracy. The industry is massively centralized and imbalanced, making use of local government corruption and oversight to pollute environments and drain local water supplies. Okarina has been in a drought for over a decade due to the abuses of the agriculture and mining industries. The country makes heavy use of GMOs and processed food which many doctors believe cause health problems. The industry in the country has attempted to control health research and shut down criticism of their products. Osorra Standard and General Institute for Genetic Research have both been involved in numerous lawsuits to the tune of billions of dollars.
Osorra is one of Anterra's largest exporters of peppers. The country's peppers are famous for their unique flavor and high spice levels. Osorra is a major exporter of food in Anterra due to its extremely fertile soil and advanced food science techniques to increase yields. The country's agriculture remains one of the most productive in Avalonia despite its small size. Osorra has also built a great deal of irrigation infrastructure to turn previously dry parts of the nation into hyperproductive breadbaskets.
Osorra has some of the most well developed infrastructure in the region. Infrastructure development has always been a significant priority of subsequent Osorrai administrations going back to the 1910s. The highway network and rail network are both fully state owned and operated by the Armed Forces. The rail lines were consolidated into Osorra National Rails after a series of railway bubbles in the 1930s. Today Osorra has a vast rail network with several high-speed rail lines in the Cuzka-Kakhab-Zalivkov triangle. The passenger rail system transports 121 million people annually. The freight rail system is similarly well developed and transports a huge volume of industrial cargo.
The Osorrai highway network has significantly expanded since the fall of Communism due to increasing government investment into the system. Many new highways have sprung up and the administration of the highways has been simplified into the Osorra Highway Administration Bureau. Local oblasts build their own highway system to varying degrees of development. The highway system is primarily funded by state-backed real estate speculation around new highway exits - where state backed real estate companies purchase the land and build properties or sell. To combat congestion Osorrai cities have created well-developed public transport networks through busses, trams and subways. 5 Osorrai cities currently have a metro system with 10 cities predicted to have lines by 2030.
Osorra has a well-developed aviation industry. Around 15 cities have international airports - the busiest being Kakhab New International Airport at around 20 million passengers annually. Osorra used to manufacture planes but today buys planes from Nanwen. The largest airline is state owned - Intoi Airlines - with several smaller private players dominating the rest of the market. The growth of the aviation industry has greatly slowed following the creation of the Osorrai high speed rail system but it remains growing at a steady clip of around 4% due to demand for travels into East Kesh.
Finally Osorra's ports are very well-developed due mostly to the nation's expansive manufacturing industry. Osorra's ports are able to accommodate growing mega-ships and enjoy generous funds for upgrades. The nation's ports are known for being some of the first in Avalonia to integrate leading edge technologies in containerization. Having effective ports is a significant priority for the government as it looks to retain its manufacturing edge.
Telecommunications is the only piece of infrastructure in Osorra under private ownership. The nation's telecom infrastructure is primarily owned by Karpacom and a joint venture between the Armed Forces, Kodeshia Telecom and the Mikhaylovs - OsTel. The two company's operate a duopoly. Still, Osorrai telecommunication infrastructure is quite developed due to generous financing from state banks. The country has a high rate of smartphone penetration at around 75% and has over 110 million internet users. The country has quickly adopted new 5G and gigabit internet networks. Osorra is a significant manufacturer of networking equipment through various firms affiliated with the Novikova family.
Osorra has a varied business environment with different oblasts having different regulations. Federal taxes are fairly low, with a flat tax of 12% being applied to all groups, a land value tax, along with various natural resource taxes. The state also derives significant amounts of revenue from state owned enterprises like Osorra Mining Corporation, Osorra Nuclear Infrastructure Corporation, and Osorra National Rails. Oblasts level flat income and property taxes, although some oblasts like Okhrina Oblast have no income taxes and very low corporate taxes. Kakhab Hi-Tech Zone charges no taxes, instead deriving its revenues from land speculation.
Osorra has a libertine regulatory environment with little regulations concerning the environment or public safety. Enforcement is often non existent, especially for the well-connected.
Finance in Osorra is tightly regulated. All the banks are state owned and follow strict government accounting and capital control laws. Speculative markets like real estate have a large degree of state participation to keep prices down and a variety of byzantine regulations and codes exist around the stock exchange. Osorra has seen limited development within its FIRE sector forcing many Osorrai billionaires to invest abroad.
Osorra's main advantage comes from its very highly developed human capital, well developed infrastructure, cheap raw materials, easy financing for capital intensive projects, and dense supply chains for manufacturing. These factors have meant despite Osorra's complex regulatory and taxation environment the country is a cornerstone for the electronics and other intensive manufacturing industries.
Overall Osorra is ranked in the middle of countries to do business, while being less open than other countries in Avalonia its well developed heavy industry, high development of human capital, and good infrastructure makes Osorra a key cornerstone in Avalonian manufacturing.
The Osorrai healthcare system is primarily operated by the government - particularly the Military Directorate of Biopolitics and Health - and takes up around 8% of GDP. Osorra has one of the highest rates of hospital beds per capita in Avalonia. All citizens are guaranteed healthcare services by the government. Citizens that make incomes in lower income brackets are guaranteed free healthcare while higher income brackets have to pay small co-pays. Private healthcare is legal, however not covered by the government. Many private companies like Sosya are involved in the healthcare industry, producing equipment for Osorrai hospitals, and operating databases for the government to store health information. The Osorrai government operates a centralized healthcare database called the National System for Healthcare Information. These databases have been criticized by human rights activists for having large amounts of extremely intimate personal information with few limitations in how the data can be used.
Osorra, while having a large pharmaceuticals industry, is a net importer of pharmaceuticals primarily from Tilenno and Akitewa. The Osorrai government negotiates with suppliers to keep prices low and has been known to suspend IP protections and outsource production to domestic companies if foreign suppliers are unable to comply with their requirements. Intellectual property protections in Osorra related to medicines are particularly weak in Osorra and it is a hotbed for grey market drugs.
Osorrai healthcare is particularly imbalanced having state of the art facilities located in the major cities and poor run down hospitals in poorer parts of the country. The Military Directorate of Biopolitics and Health has created a plan to alleviate this imbalance and has pledged 50 billion dollars towards rural healthcare facilities in the next decade. Osorra rarely utilizes the "best" healthcare equipment, instead choosing to wait for technologies to prove themselves and prices to lower.
In Osorra, organized crime groups are widespread - with the country commonly being seen as a "mafia state". Secret societies in the country infiltrate many legitimate white market activities, holding significant stake in major corporations. Also for small and medium sized businesses organized crime groups and secret societies are often the only ones that lend them credit. The 4 major families are heavily connected to secret societies. The Balakirev Triad is the largest organized crime group in the country. They were founded by Kodeshi migrants in the 1880s, taking control of the optics and glass manufacturing industry, and took over many research labs during the Volkovist period. The group is heavily involved in pornography, the sex trade, and amphetamines. The second largest is Osya Bratva, which is closely linked with the Armed Forces of Osorra. Formed as a far-right gang in the 1980s its members played a key role in the coup d'etat that overthrew the Communist government and help establish modern Osorra. Osya Bratya patrols lower class areas, with a strict honor culture and machismo.  Osya Bratya runs numerous casinos across the country and is a major player in the international amphetamine and heroin trade. The third largest group is the mostly indigenous gang V Condor. V Condor operates mostly in the interior and southern provinces among poorer areas. It practices Tanents Solstana and often redistributes its profits from illicit activities to Churches of the Sun. The gang derives the majority of its revenues from the fracking industry where it has numerous links and connections.
Sex work in Osorra is illegal, with heavy punishments applied for both prostitutes and pimps alike. Sex toys are similarly banned. All pornography sites were banned in 2015 with the support of the military and pornography distribution on USBs carries a significant sentence. Still, the industry thrives underground. Osorrai gangs run a variety of underground brothels across the country and produce a variety of pornographic videos. These gangs are known to engage in illicit human trafficking and sexual abuse. Many Osorrai politicians have been implicated in scandals involving the sex trade.
While adult video is illegal in Osorra - erotic literature and film is completely permissible. Unfortunately some gangs have used that loophole to create "legitimate" front studios for the production of illicit videos - as depicted in Noll' (2015 film). The country has implemented various crackdowns due to rising public discontent yet little has been done.
Osorra has a population of 130,734,320 according to the 2015 census, with the population estimate suggesting 131,234,320. Osorra has a TFR of 1.9, with a general trend of reducing birthrates since the 50s, when pro natalist policies were discarded. In the 90s Osorra had a major fall in birthrates, and an increase in death rates, with the TFR only going up in the early 00s. There are wide variances in birthrates between different regions and ethnic groups. The Osorrai population has been aging, with only 22% of the population under 18, and over 10% over 60 according to the recent census. Many demographers worried about this impending aging crisis, and have urged the Osorrai government to start raising birthrates.
Osorra's population is predominantly urban, with an urbanization rate of 72%. The largest urban area is Zalivkov with a population of around 12 million, followed by Cuzka with a population of 8 million.
Osorra is one of the most diverse nations in Anterra, which is especially true with its ethnic groups as no group has a clear majority. The last census estimates "pure whites" make up around 22% of the population, "mixed" makes up around 41%, "natives" make up 25%, and "others" (mostly Cicrassian, Mountain Jews, Roma, non-Osorrai Avalonian Natives, Tartars, and Akitei) make up 17%. Osorrai ethnic categories have been criticized for being too simplifed and in response the government has created more detailed ethnic breakdowns. Osorra has hundreds of diverse ethnic groups, which has sparked study by demographers and ethnologists the world over.
The nation hosts large populations of many groups that were suppressed by the mainland Vojiskiy Empire, such as Cicrassians. Many of them fled to Osorra in the 1860-80s, seeking safety and refuge. These groups came to Osorra and incorparated their local tradition with that of other groups. Osorra has very diverse native groups, with thousands of years of tradition. Natives are known for having their own unique music mythology and cuisines, which is celebrated by all Osorrai, regardless of ethnic group. The most interesting groups in Osorra are "mixed" groups such as Yarovar-Quechan or Akit-Osorrai. They represent how Osorra is a "melting pot" where cultures from all over Anterra intermix. In recent years cuisine from mixed communities sich as Akit-Osorrai has gained a large following in Anterra.
Osorra has a well ranked education system despite its limited funding. Osorrai education is primary public and free, albeit private schools do exist. Education is a right guaranteed by the Constitution of Osorra. The nation has impressive literacy rates at over 98%. The Directorate for Education is primary responsible for education in the country. Osorra has an impressive rate of students seeking post-secondary education with among 45% of the country's population being college graduates.
Osorrai law requires at least 9 years of compulsory schooling. However parents can start putting their kids into nursery centers by age 3 or 4, free of charge. Primary education starts at age 6 and gives the students a Primary Education Certificate. Secondary schools in Osorra have a competitive examination system to determine admissions placing students into a Secondary School "Tier". This system has been criticized for leading to severe education inequality as lower tier schools are often severely underfunded. After graduating from Secondary School students can choose a Teritary Institution. Admissions for the top colleges such as Cuzka Institute for Public and Intelligence Policy, Kakhab Polytechnic, Kakhab Grand Ecole, University of Zalivkov, and Cuzka Institute are fiercely competitive since landing in these colleges can guarantee students a high paying job and a ticket to the middle class.
Music and Dance
Osorrai music is known worldwide for its diverse and unique styles, combining aspects of many different types of music. The most popular genres include post-punk, bossa nova, and disco - genres that persist in Osorra today despite being less popular abroad. Osorra's post-punk bands are the most well known and include bands such as Nevaliden, Gruppa3, and Obezlesyavaneto. This genre began in the early 1980s, creating protest music against the military dictatorship. The most popular band of this period was known as Gruppa Svoboda. Many bands would follow their lead and this emerging music scene would become one of the largest in the country. The scene would attract many political radicals, including one of the most infamous characters from the scene, Yefim Levtor, an eco-anarchist who founded the Osorrai National Bolshevik Society. He created cult classics such as Bez Menya and My Defense with a gritty psychedelic style After the collapse of the military dictatorship, many of the old bands disappeared, with many of their lead singers suddenly dying, but in the massive social turmoil from liberalization new bands formed that copied their styles. These bands were much more depressive than the previous bands and focused on more existential themes. These bands would develop a following all over the Slavosphere, with themes that transcend culture, religion, or class. Today Osorra has thousands of post-punk bands, carrying on the tradition laid by Gruppa Svoboda. Overseas the style is known as Os-Punk and has been growing in popularity.
Osorra has had unique musical blends since the first black settlers landed in 1840, brought by Yarovan settlers, due to intermingling music styles. Osorra would develop a variant of bossa nova, which quickly became popular all across the world. The style was well-known for evoking images of the nation's beautiful beaches and tropical rainforests. Osorrai music continues to borrow numerous elements from native and African cultures especially with modern styles such as chillwave. Surf-rock was one of the first Osorrai genres to gain widespread appeal in the entire country as the surf-rock craze in the 60s brought music to the masses. Songs like El Sereno, Eat Starch Mom!, and Surf Bablyon remain cult classics.
Osorra has a significant hip-hop and hyperpop scene which unlike the other scenes originated in the country's interior cities. The scene developed from imitation artists of foreign acts but acquired its own originality through electronic production and influences from animes from Nanwen. Osorrai acts are unique for being hyperproduced - taking heavy influence from electronic and breakcore scenes. Some major artists include Aqwore , Cewerclvt  , and Nurumnisky . One of the most popular Osorrai songs malo malo tebya was produced by an anonymous artist yet remains one of the most popular songs in the country.
Finally, Osorra developed a large synth and electronic culture. They started with dramatic Osorrai space operas in the 70s, which were attempting to capitalize on the sci-fi genre. Merging elements from Osorra's jazz scene, a group from Osorra's universities known as "Bioloom" developed an evocative form of electronic music. This style quickly became in the vogue all over the country. Later in the 80s, disco acts such as Osya and New Osorra Group were founded, which became a hit nationwide. The music while primarily shunning political themes did have some subversive songs such as "Bureaucrat". "Bureaucrat" attacked the slow and degenerated culture of Osorrai bureaucracy. Less political songs were produced, such as Computer World and Aesthete. After the Communist period many of these bands disbanded, however many of their songs remain cult classics in Osorra and the rest of the Slavosphere.
Osorra has a diverse and varied cuisine with influences from many cultures. Staple foods include maize, potatoes, yams, sweet potatoes, beets, carrots, beans, mayonnaise, and pepper paste. One common Osorrai staple meal usually involves a soup made from a slow-cooked root vegetable, onions, cabbages, spices, and carrots. Sour cream and pepper flakes are doped above the soup. The meal is usually eaten with a side of cornbread or japchae noodles. This dish is called Svekla Pashqi. Another common Osorrai stable meal involves Japchae noodles served with beans, corn, pepper paste, roasted peppers, spring onions, and a chili infused oil. Another major Osorrai meal involves roasting sweet potatoes and stuffing them with a mix of beans, roasted peppers, pepper paste and placing mayo at the top. Osya Olivei involves a salad made up of sweet potatoes, peppers, corn, mayo, beans, and carrots - it is one of the most well known Osorrai staple dishes. Finally, Osorrai has its own variation on pierogi, where they pierogi are stuffed with sweet potato and dipped in pepper sauce with a salad to the side. Sweet potatoes are especially important to Osorrai cooking and feature in a wide variety of the nations dishes. Often times meat is added to these staple dishes but they aren't necessary.
Sandwiches are also popular in Osorrai cuisine. The base of most Osorrai sandwiches is pork, roasted onion, roasted pepper, mayonnaise, and pepper paste. Other ingredients can be added on top of this base. Often time these sandwiches are eaten alongside Svenkla Pashqi. The bread is usually a toasted rye bread. Noodles feature heavily in Osorrai cuisine - mostly Japchae noodles however - and are eaten in a variety of ways. Osorra has a large instant noodle industry which has recently gained traction abroad.
In terms of Osorrai break meals a common one is Cuzka Kotlet. Basically butter and pepper sauce are stuffed into chicken which is first baked and fried. Rice is served with the chicken as a side dish. Osorra has its own variation on Katchapuri where peppers are added alongside the cheese and the whole thing is dressed in chili oil to serve. Osorrai honeycake is distinct by being made up of layers of cornbread sweetened with large amounts of honey and sourcream. Cuzka Cake has sweetened nuts sandwiched by layers of butternut cream.
Osorrai pepper paste is one of the most important parts of Osorrai cuisine. Local peppers are usually picked in the fall and then fermented in stone containers and mixed with various spices. Later in the winter the paste is removed. It features in many dishes in Osorrai cuisine and is a very common pantry item. The taste is described as having a unique "Slavonic" taste to it as compared to other pepper pastes.
- Osorra's oligarchs were a new class created after the 80s economic reforms. The oligarchs managed to acquire the most privatized state assets and utilized them to their ends. Through the massive wealth, they gained the oligarchs would patronize various political institutions, becoming permanently embedded in the Osorrai state
- The high low vs middle setup presupposes the high and low are united together to attempt to centralize political power, thus threatening the "middle"