From Anterra
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Singaradscha Leased Territory
Pachtgebiet Singaradscha (Goetic)
Daerah Sewaan Singaraja (ERS)
Condominium of Singaradscha
Kondominium Singaradscha (Goetic)
Kondominium Singaraja (ERS)
Flag of Singaradscha
Motto: Gott mit uns
"God with us"
Status Condominium of East Ramay and Provisional Government of the Goetic Empire
Official languages Goetic
Recognised regional languages Eastern Ramayan Standard
Ethnic groups
Demonym Singaradscher(in)
Government Colony (1874-1925)
Condominium (1925-1966)
• Emperor
Adalbert (last)
• Governor-General
Theodor Lafayette (last)
• Governor
Tchokora Abimanji Arschananda (last)
• Treaty of Sragen
• Goetic collapse and condominium
• Handover of Singaradscha
• 1960
118 km2 (46 sq mi)
• 1965 census

Before 1925:

  • Reichspapier

After 1925:

  • Singaradscha Mark
  • Austral
Driving side right

Singaradscha, known as the Singaradscha Leased Territory prior to 1925 and the Condominium of Singaradscha after 1925, was a Goetic leased territory in Samot-Seratofian Eastern Ramay between 1874 and 1925, and a condominium between the Republic of East Ramay and the Provisional Government of the Goetic Empire between 1925 and 1966. Covering an area of 118 km2 (46 sqm), it was centred on the city of Singaraja ("Singaradscha") on the southeastern coast of what is now South Kesh. It was originally leased from the Samot-Seratofian Empire in 1874 for a period of 99 years to facilitate Goetic ships and vessels on their journeys to Shimakawa and other locations within southern Kesh. After the loss of the Goetic Empire and the SSE, the leased territory was made a condominium as per the Singaradscha Agreement shortly after the independence of East Ramay in 1925 from the Samot-Seratofian Empire.

While according to law both East Ramay and the Provisional Government shared equal powers over Singaradscha after the treaty of Singaradscha, in practice, East Ramay possessed far greater powers to influence the internal politics and policies of the condominium. The Provisional Government fell into more disorganization and by the late 1940s, had become a puppet of the Alvak military dictatorship, and thus was severely limited in its ability to project power from its side of the continent. At the onset of the Kesh Wars, a round of negotiations took place between the powers, and was finally agreed that East Ramay would fully absorb Singaradscha into its sovereign territory, while respecting the unique traditions and system of government already installed in the condominium. East Ramay also agreed to pay the government-in-exile an undisclosed amount of money, and to bear the condominium government's debts.

Singaradscha would cease to exist on 1 March 1966 in a handover ceremony attended by both sides, marking the end of 92 years of Goetic presence in the city and surrounding areas.


Goetic lease

Goetschensstraße in 1875

The Samot-Seratofian Empire had subjugated and conquered lands in southern Kesh after fighting several colonial wars against the native political entities and other nations, mostly also colonial empires. The area in what is now known today as Singaraja became part of the newly-formed Colony of Eastern Ramay in the mid 19th century, having no special treatment or administration in the area. At the same time, the imperial Goetic empire was also growing its colonial reach in Kesh, with notable possessions being Alva by the Eurybian, and Shimakawa by the coast of Akiteiwa. An increase in Goetic presence was also observed in the mid-19th century, mostly merchant and civilian ships roaming around the continent, many for solely economic incentives.

The growth of Goetic presence in the area, especially with a growing number of possessions and dealings in Kesh, particularly eastern Kesh, prompted several inquiries back in Goetia to establish a colony in the southern end of Kesh, mainly to become a stopping and resting point for ships heading elsewhere. However, most of the lands in southern Kesh at that point were either already taken by other colonial empires, or were home to strong militaries, resulting in invasions and a colonial government being established to be very expensive and pyrrhic in nature. An alternative, sponsored by the then chancellor David von Spahr, gained momentum amongst the Goetic parliament and population as a whole. In 1873, Chancellor von Spahr suggested that the Goetic empire purchase a coastal territory from the existing entities in southern Kesh for a fee, which was much easier and cheaper to perform in the long run. Von Spahr contacted several empires and nations, though in the end, only the Samot-Seratofian Empire responded to von Spahr's requests.

Von Spahr initially offered to buy a province administered by Samot-Seratofian forces, though such request was denied. After a series of talks and negotiations between the two, both parties agreed to lease a coastal city named Singaradja in the southeastern portion of the colony for 99 years, effectively giving the Goetic Empire another colony in the continent. The Goetics gained 118 square kilometres which contained the principal city of Singaradja, along with surrounding areas rich in agriculture to support the local colonial economy. In 1874, the treaty of Sragen was signed, ratifying the transfer of power from the SSE to the Goetic Empire. Singaradja would be known as Singaradscha, adhering to Goetic spelling and orthography. The Samot-Seratofians would never administer Singaradja after leasing it to Goetic forces as the SSE would collapse in 1925, a mere 51 years after the lease had been made.

Goetic administration

Main colonial administrative building, c. 1905

The treaty of Sragen solidified and legitimized Goetic rule over the colony. The language of administration was officially changed from Samot and Seratofian to Goetic. The Samot-Seratofian gold Krone was also replaced by the Singaradsches Reichspapier pegged to the Goetic currency at a rate of 1 Goetic Mark to 2 Reichspapier. In 1874, the first governor-general of Singaradscha was installed. Governor-general Willem von Kaiserwald would serve as Singaradscha's first colonial governor, administering the territory between 1874 to 1892. During his 18-year tenure in office, Governor-general Kaiserwald strengthened strategic Goetic interests within the fledgeling colony, including revitalizing the ancient port to support 19th-century trade demands, as well as constructing several offices and buildings of colonial importance in the center of Singaradscha city which would serve as the offices for the various administrative bodies formed under his tenure. The local population, which were known as "Inlanders" by the Goetic, were given primary education in Goetic, but ultimately was made to serve the small but growing Goetic minority inhabiting Singaradscha.

The number of Goetics inhabiting Singaradscha increased from no more than 10 individuals at the start of Goetic administration to nearly 2,000 people by 1890. Many Goetics migrated to Singaradscha in hopes of a better life and economic situation upon hearing that the revitalized ports were capable of harboring ships and vessels commonly used in maritime trade around Kesh at that point. The Goetic branded themselves as the saviour of the Singaradschan population, seeing how brutal the SSE was towards other peoples in southern Kesh. As a result, during the early days of colonial administration, tensions between the colonial masters and the native population were kept low, although some dissent and discontent coming from both sides occurred. The inlanders continued to work mainly in agriculture, while the small Goetic minority controlled virtually all government positions and posts. In essence, while the same colonial practices that happened elsewhere in the Goetic empire occurred, the colonial administration was more pragmatic about the situation.

Kaiserposrt, a port built by Governor-General Kaiserwald pictured in 1899

In 1897, Alfred Wagner was installed as governor-general of Singaradscha. His administration was proven to be very unpopular, both by the inlanders and the Goetic minority. His harsh policies towards the native inlanders to fulfill an ever-growing quota mandated by the Goetic empire included the forced planting of several cash crops such as tobacco, coffee, and sugar caused the soil quality to quickly degrade, and thus several food shortages happened in 1899-1900. The native inlanders were unhappy that their farmland turned unproductive and were subjugated far more harshly than the previous administration, while the Goetic minority complained about soaring prices and the bad reputation which would bring Goetia if such atrocities were continued. In a rare form of solidarity, the native inlanders and Goetic minority came together in 1901 and to petition the removal of Governor-General Wagner from his post directly towards the Goetic emperor.

The petition requests were successful, and in late 1901, Governor-General Wagner was sacked from his post and was replaced by Viktor Schumacher. Governor-General Schumacher was strictly commanded by the Goetic Empire to restore stability and favorability amongst both the inlanders and the Goetic minority while retaining Goetic supremacy. Governor-General Schumacher performed what is now known as his "ethical policies", constructing schools, hospitals, and most importantly irrigation systems in the damaged fields to restore social order and the favorability of the Goetic colonial administration. Consequently, the number of people which was able to read or write and speak the Goetic language increased massively, thus fostering a unique blend of Goetic-Galuhan identity within the populace. Inter-ethnic marriages was also permitted beginning in 1904, creating the "Singa" people, which was defined as 'anyone with partial Goetic and native ancestry'. Governor-General Schumacher's policies were very well received by the people in Singaradscha and in Goetia. Subsequent colonial governors would try and mimic what Governor-General Schumacher had completed.

In 1918, the Grand Campaigns broke out, mainly in Artemia. Goetia and the Samot-Seratofian Empire were involved in heavy warfare between 1918 and 1925, where focus was diverted from the colonies towards the mainland. Both empires would collapse after their loss in the Grand Campaigns, and their colonies were left in limbo. As per the treaty of Holmgard, the Republic of East Ramay was to be created encompassing all the lands the SSE administered, plus the addition of the leased territory of Singaradscha. The colonial administration, supported by the local population, rejected such a treaty. The general population, now more educated and being fed with Goetic propaganda, were concerned about their place in a fragile and economically crushed nation, and thus would like to remain a separate entity from East Ramay. Upon the arrival of the Goetic Provisional Government on Alvak shores, Governor-General Maximillian swore allegiance to that government and prompted to create international tension between the newly-formed and disorganized republic and the leased territories now with an unclear legal standing.

Shortly after the formation of East Ramay on the 1st of May 1925 and the rejection of Singaradscha to join the new republic, negotiations began to take place between the two sides. After four months of negotiations, it was agreed by both parties that Singaradscha would nominally become a condominium administered jointly by East Ramay and the Goetic Empire, now represented by the Provisional Government of the Goetic Empire. The heads of state of both entities would serve as the dual heads of state of the condominium.

Condominium and transfer of sovereignty

Talks between the Singaradscher and Goetic government (left) with the East Ramayan government (right)

On the 28th of August 1925, Singaradscha officially became the Condominium of Singaradscha, an internationally recognized political entity administered by both East Ramay and the Goetic Provisional Government. Goetic remained the official language of administration, while Eastern Ramayan Standard became a "recognized language". The Reichspapier was replaced by the Singaradscher Mark and the East Ramayan Austral at an official rate of 1 Austral = 81 Marks. Both currencies circulated alongside one another and must be accepted by law in all transactions, however, the East Ramayan Austral was more widely circulated, especially during the last years of the condominium's existence. The Parliament of Singaradscha was established shortly after the formation of the condominium, with elected representatives to promulgate laws and policies.

The powers of the Goetic Provisional Government continued to wane after the formation of the condominium. With the government in exile being a mere puppet of the Alvak military dictatorship, political commentators at the time referred to Singaradscha as "Alva's first and last colony." East Ramay continued to gain influence in the outcome of several policies and ordeals signed into law in Singaradscha, which mostly favoured East Ramay. The Provisional Government at times threatened the East Ramayans, but was never seriously considered by East Ramay.

During the Kesh Wars, ideas and aspirations of reintegration with East Ramay began to circulate amongst the population. With the Provisional Government clearly benig an Alvak puppet and being very incapable of running the territory effectively and with the economic boom in East Ramay happening due to the Kesh Wars, several notable politicians suggested that the status of Singaradscha be 'discussed as soon as possible'. In 1960, one year after the conclusion of the Kesh Wars, Prime Minister I Made Artha Sugijanta formally requested the audience of East Ramay and the Goetic Provisional Government to discuss the future of the condominium. Prime Minister Sugijanta delivered the aspirations which circulated amongst the population in Singaradscha towards both parties, to the dismay of the Goetic Provisional Government. Despite being given increased freedoms from the Alvak government in 1958, the government in exile was fully aware that they did not have the capacity to be in equal footing with one of the fastest-growing economies and powers of the region, and quietly signed the documents which would hand over Singaradscha towards the East Ramayans.

Kongressstraße in Singaradscha days before switching to driving on the left, 1965

The Treaty of Kedibaya was signed in 1961 by both sides, giving the condominium 5 years to adapt itself towards integration with East Ramay. The Treaty of Kedibaya acknowledged the special status of Singaradscha as a formerly Goetic possession and promoted the use of Goetic alongside the local language in affairs within the territory. During the 5 year transition period, all Mark banknotes were slowly retracted from circulation and were replaced by the already dominating East Ramayan Austral. Plans to change the driving side also occurred, and after a three-year period of preparations, including changing all signs, road markings, and policy compatibility, Singaradscha officially changed from driving from the right side of the road to driving on the left like elsewhere in East Ramay in 1965. All references to the Goetic Empire were removed from all spaces, and the curriculum emphasized the Eastern Ramayan Standard over the Goetic language.

A handover ceremony was conducted on the 1st of March 1966, attended by President Suwiryo of East Ramay and Crown Prince Wilhelm of the Goetic Provisional Government. Emperor Adalbert did not attend the ceremony for several reasons: he was becoming quite frail and his doctors advised him against travelling, and entries in his diary suggest that even if he had the chance to attend, he would not out of spite. The flag of the Goetic Empire and the Colonial flag of Singaradscha was promptly lowered to the tune of the Goetic imperial anthem, the last time such anthem would be heard in Singaradscha, while the flag of East Ramay remained flying as a symbol of the sole sovereign administration in Singaradscha. The anthem of East Ramay was played while Crown Prince Wilhelm and his diplomatic encore left the premises.


Colonial administration

City hall of Singaradscha (left), 1918

During the times of the Goetic colonial administration, the highest post in civilian administration was the governor-general, usually appointed by the emperor of Goetia himself. The governor-general was the representation of the Goetic monarch and acted as both the head of state and head of government of Singaradscha, appointing and creating colonial administrations to help in the running of the colony, such as the colonial administration for education, agriculture, and others, which were then subsequently led by colonial ministers. The governor-general and his cabinet were then responsible for the parliament of the Goetic Empire as a constituent colony of the realm. The legislative council of Singaradscha was established in 1906, mainly as an advisory board towards the governor-general. Of the 11 seats in the Legislative Council, 5 seats were reserved for natives, 5 seats were reserved for Goetics, and 1 seat was reserved for the speaker. All representatives were chosen by the governor-general. The sole official language of administration was the Goetic language, while the native Balinese language continued to be used by the local population in day-to-day affairs.

Laws were created by the governor-general, often without prior knowledge or consent of the legislative bodies and the imperial Goetic government. This autocratic behaviour was most prominent during the tenure of Governor-General Wagner, who imposed strict regulations and quotas on the local population. The massive backfire of his policies inadvertently loosened such autocratic powers and behaviours from governors-general, with fears of similar situations happening again, angering Goetia.

The territory of Singaradscha itself was divided into 6 principal baronies and 1 imperial city, which was Singaradscha itself. The 6 principal baronies are mostly rural agricultural heartlands while the city of Singaradscha is mainly an administrative and economic center of the colony. The 6 principal baronies are led by colonial barons appointed by the governor-general, and after 1906, names of potential colonial barons could be suggested by the legislative council of Singaradscha. The principal baronies were initially statistical zones regarding agricultural output but came to be the formal administrative divisions of the colony under the rule of Governor-General Haralden in 1895.

Native students attend a Goetic-run school for inlanders, 1908

The running of public facilities such as schools, hospitals, and police stations, were the responsibility of the colonial administrations. Schools were managed by the colonial administration for education, and hospitals were managed by the colonial administration for health to name a few. These colonial administrations had direct power to manage and facilitate the running of the public facilities and were only subordinate to the governor-general. The largest of the colonial administrations by budget and number of employees was the colonial administration for agriculture, which oversaw the production and output of the various crops and produce in Singaradscha. The principal baronies were the main place of operation for the colonial administration for agriculture.


Shortly after the establishment of Singaradscha, Willem von Kaiserwald introduced the Singaradscha Cadetship (Goetic: Kadettenstellung Singaradscha), which recruited young graduates from Goetia to learn spoken and written Eastern Ramayan Standard for two years, before deploying them on a fast track to various administrations in the colony. Cadet officers gradually formed the backbone of the civil administration. Shortly after Condominium rule was established, ethnic East Ramayans were allowed into the service, followed by women. Cadets were renamed Administrative Officers (Goetic: Verwaltungsbeamter) in the 1950s, and they remained the elite of the administration during the Condominium era.

Condominium administration

Upon the transfer of sovereignty from a purely Goetic colony towards a condominium in 1925, Singaradscha was nominally under the jurisdiction of the newly-formed Republic of East Ramay and the Goetic Empire, now represented by the Goetic Provisional Government based in Alva. Both East Ramay and the Goetic Provisional Government possessed equal power and footing in the say of how Singaradscha was run, with both sending 'special envoys' to oversee the running of the condominium. East Ramay, adamant that the territory be returned to itself, called the special envoy from its side 'governor', while the Goetic Provisional Government retained the name of 'governor-general'. These two special envoys in theory would have had veto power over bills approved by the legislature if it did not conform to either party, and have special powers to call certain bodies of government to oversee the running of agencies. The prime minister of Singaradscha was the head of government of the condominium.

The Parliament of Singaradscha was established in 1925, and was the continuation of the legislative council of Singaradja. The Parliament of Singaradscha was now directly voted by the entire population, both inlanders and Goetics. Seats were apportioned based on the number of citizens living in a certain administrative division. There were 35 seats in the original iteration of the Parliament of Singaradscha, but by late 1955, the amount had been changed to 40 to accommodate a growing population. The Parliament would then elect a prime minister to be the head of government of the condominium. Most prime ministers were just leaders of the party or coalition with the most amount of seats. The prime minister had the capability to form a cabinet government responsible for both the parliament and the special envoys.

In theory, the governor-general of Singaradscha from the Goetic Provisional Government was equally as powerful as the governor of Singaradja from the Republic of East Ramay, however, in practice, the governor from East Ramay would have far greater powers and say in the running of the condominium government, leaving the governor-general of Singaradscha to be a purely symbolic role as early as the 1940s. However, several instances of Goetic involvement in the running of the condominium have occurred. One instance is the controversial 1938 language act, which would have greatly increased the role of the Eastern Ramayan Standard in government by requiring all officials, elected and unelected, to be proficient in Goetic and the Eastern Ramayan Standard, as well as writing all bills in the two languages. Goetic Governor-General Hans Adam vehemently rejected and vetoed the bill, even though parliament had passed the bill.

Administratively, the condominium retained the original 7 divisions: 6 principal baronies and 1 city. These divisions were united under a common term known as 'districts', with the city of Singaradscha being its own district. Administrative districts were led by a mayor, directly elected by the population once every four years.

Singaradscha kept the Goetic language as the official language of administration, while the East Ramayan Standard became a recognized national language in the territory. All mentions of the Goetic Empire had to be accompanied with mentions towards the Republic of East Ramay. Schools in Singaradscha were mandated to use both Goetic and the East Ramayan language, though most schools would have more Goetic in their medium of instruction as a result of prolonged Goetic influence on the educational system.

Administrative divisions

Administrative map in 1950

The general structure of administrative divisions in Singaradscha remained relatively stable throughout its existence. Beginning in 1889, the territory was divided into 6 principal baronies and 1 imperial city for a total of 7 first-level divisions. The structure was retained upon transitioning to a condominium, with the nomenclature of the divisions changed to districts. Each division except the imperial city has its own principal town which acts as the administrative center of that division. Administrative divisions in Singaradscha have evolved from a purely statistical role to a more administrative and civil role.

Below are the 7 administrative divisions which existed throughout the lifespan of Singaradscha:

Name Administrative
Population Area Density
Singaradscha Singaradscha 55,000
Neubazar Bangil
Tirtapura Dschembrene
Ulungawi Wenten
Tschanti Tschanti
Ost-Rawa Wehgde
West-Rawa Dschumun


(will put something for the Schutztruppe here)

As a result of the Singaradscha Agreement of 1925, the Singaradscha Schutztruppe, the main defence force of the colony, was disbanded. Established in its place was the Joint Safety Force (Goetic: Gemeinsame Sicherheitskraft) (ERS: Pasukan Keamanan Bersama), notionally a lightly armed police force. In reality, however, the JSF acted as the Condominium's de facto military.

Given the legal status of police, the Joint Safety Force was tasked with the duty to maintain public security under special conditions according to the Joint Safety Force Order (Cabinet Order No. 26, 1926), while in terms of unit formation and equipment, it was a de facto military force modelled after the late Imperial Goetic Army.

List of Governors-General

No. Portrait Name
Term of office Origin Background
Took office Left office Duration
1 P. B. S. Pinchback - Brady-Handy.jpg Willem von Kaiserwald


13 April 1874 8 June 1892 18 years, 56 days Eisenberg, Goetic Empire Deputy Governor of Schangau
2 LouisRiel1885.jpg Stephen Schildknecht


9 June 1892 14 October 1897 5 years, 127 days Blumnau, Goetic Empire Generalleutnant in the Imperial Goetic Army
3 Sir Matthew Nathan.jpg Alfred Wagner


15 October 1897 2 February 1901 3 years, 110 days Auerburg, Goetic Empire Colonial administrator
4 Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard (1894, cropped).jpg Viktor Schumacher


3 February 1901 3 March 1911 10 years, 59 days Alvastadt, Lower Alva Colonial administrator
5 SirReginaldStubbs.jpg Nico von Fresenius


4 March 1911 19 December 1927 16 years, 260 days Königstadt, Goetic Empire Colonial administrator
6 Sir Thomas Southorn.jpg Mats Hofstetter


20 December 1927 16 January 1935 7 years, 27 days Königstadt, Goetic Empire Colonial administrator
7 Mark Young in 1930s.png Hans Adam


17 January 1935 22 August 1947 12 years, 217 days Schangau, Bessemershafen-Schangau Colonial administrator
8 Norman Lockhart Smith.jpg Albert Herzsprung


23 August 1947 31 December 1955 8 years, 130 days Singaradscha, Singaradscha Leased Territory Colonial administrator
9 CR Swart 1960.jpg Theodor Lafayette


1 January 1956 28 February 1966 10 years, 58 days Immenschau, Goetic Empire Colonial administrator

List of Governors

No. Portrait Name
Term of office Origin Background
Took office Left office Duration
1 Mr. datuk djamin 1945-1946.jpg Adi Susanto


28 August 1925 10 April 1931 5 years, 225 days Tengtromo, Samot-Seratofian East Ramay N/A
- - Wahyu Iskandar Hadiman

Interim Governor

10 April 1931 21 April 1931 11 days Sragen, Samot-Seratofian East Ramay Member of the House of Representatives for Sragen
2 Gubernur Jawa Barat Mashudi.jpg Hartono Mashudi


22 April 1931 2 February 1947 15 years, 286 days Jakarta, Samot-Seratofian East Ramay Member of the House of Representatives for Jakarta
3 Hadisubeno Sosrowerdojo (restored).jpg Bambang Atmodjo


3 February 1947 5 June 1953 6 years, 123 days Sragen, Samot-Seratofian East Ramay Government diplomat
4 Official Portrait of Ali Sadikin as the Governor of Jakarta.jpg Tchokora Abimanji Arschananda


6 June 1953 28 February 1966 12 years, 267 days Singaradscha, Condominium of Singaradscha Government diplomat


Ulungawischer Hof hotel in 1944

The economy of Singaradscha had grown from being an agriculturally-based society, especially during the early years of the Goetic colonial administration, to that of a service-based industry towards the end of the existence of the condominium. Originally a colony that existed to serve merchants and vessels on their route towards other destinations, the economic landscape and environment propelled several merchants and traders to stay and develop an economic base in the colony, thus sparking the colony's first economic boom. As the currency used at the time (the Singaradscha Reichspapier) was pegged to the Goetic currency and thus made Goetic banknotes acceptable, this attracted more Goetics and other merchants to Singaradscha, either as a stopping point or as a base to conduct their businesses. This change also affected the inlanders, as most of the native inhabitants were still farmers by profession working on what was suddenly government-owned land, having to pay a fee to use the land to grow crops and sell to the increasing demand for exotic produce.

Consequently, Singaradscha was significantly much richer and affluent than surrounding locations, a main factor in why Singaradscha refused to join the newly-formed Republic of East Ramay in 1925 for fears of economic collapse and political instability. A condominium was set up in 1925 by the Republic of East Ramay and the Goetic Provisional Government. East Ramay knew well at that point that a forced integration would not sit well with the already fractured and tumultuous political atmosphere present in the country, and agreed to a condominium as proposed by the the Singaradschers themselves. As a compromise, the Reichspapier was replaced by the Singaradscher Mark and the East Ramayan Austral, with both currencies running concurrently with one another, and both being accepted at a rate of 1 Austral = 81 Marks. In the first few years of the condominium's existence, Singaradscha was one of the most affluent and wealthy regions of southern Kesh, and the Singaradscher Mark being more widely circulated in the general economy.

Tourism became a growing sector in Singaradscha's economy, as its political status and exquisite location in the southernmost portions of Kesh attracted many tourists, especially from East Ramay. Goetic architecture and culture present in Singaradscha also became a notable point of interest for the Goetic Diaspora, attracting a moderate amount of tourists from Alva and KNA during its existence.

As the East Ramayan economy underwent a massive explosion from the exploitation of bauxite and the process of alumunium beginning in the 1930s supported with a cooling political atmosphere in the nation. The general standards of living and economic situation of East Ramay soon rivaled that of Singaradscha, while the Singaradscher economy stagnated as a result of frequent gridlock between the conflicting parties. The 1950s Kesh War would be a true catalyst for the already burgeoning and exploding East Ramayan economy, with the economy tripling in only three years as a result of bauxite and aluminum sales needed for the war effort. Industry and service-based commodities flourished in East Ramay, and by the late 1950s, the average East Ramayan was making 65% of what someone in a developed nation would. Singaradscha's economic importance lessened with every coming year due to these factors.

Singaradscha would be incorporated into East Ramay in 1966 after a five year economic and political transition period to become part of the Galuh province. The average income of one living in Singaradscha shortly after reintegration was similar to that in other cities the same size as Singaradscha.



Singaradscher Mark

50 Mark bill from 1960

The Singaradscher Mark was the de jure sole currency of Singaradscha, issued by the Bank of Singaradscha, as stipulated by the 1925 constitution of Singaradscha. The currency replaced the Reichspapier which had been the currency of Singaradscha since 1874, though along with the compromise struck with East Ramay, the East Ramayan Austral was to be accepted in all transactions except those that dealt with the government at an equal rate of 1 Austral to 81 Singaradscher Marks. This rate would later become the official pegged rate of the Singaradscher Mark. All prices and accounts have to be denominated in Marks. The Bank of Singaradscha holds executive power to print and regulate the Singaradscher Mark as well as determine economic policy special to Singaradscha, however, in line with the stipulations mandated by the Singaradscha agreement, the governor of the Bank of Singaradscha must gain approval from both sides before making any economic move. The Singaradscher Mark was in every aspect an independent currency even though it is pegged to the East Ramayan Austral.

Initially, the Singaradscher Mark enjoyed a monopoly over the banknote supply in Singaradscha. As early as 1930, 87% of all banknotes and coins circulating are Singaradscher Marks, with the rest being the East Ramayan Austral. The Singaradscher Mark was seen as a more stable currency than the Austral, and was even used in certain parts of East Ramay surrounding Galuh, mainly merchants and tourist destinations. By the East Ramayan Austral was a bimetallic currency backed by gold and silver. An increase in East Ramay's economic output in the 1940s and 1950s coupled with growing reserves of both commodities deposited in the central reserves meant that the Austral was seen as more stable and more widely accepted, thus the East Ramayan Austral began to increase in circulation in Singaradscha. By 1958, a staggering 80% of all banknotes were East Ramayan Austral banknotes, with the remaining 20% being Singaradscher Mark banknotes.

Beginning in 1961, policies favoring the use of the East Ramayan Austral in preparation for integration into East Ramay was conducted. All Singaradscher Marks were to be exchanged to East Ramayan Australs by 1 January 1966. At first, prices were to be denominated both in Singaradscher Mark and in the Austral, before transitioning to being denominated only in the Austral by late 1964. With the help of the Central Bank of East Ramay, local banks offered exchange services free of charge beginning in 1962 to quicken the changeover process. The East Ramayan Austral became the only official currency of Singaradscha on the 1st of March 1966.


Singaradscha maintained a very well-maintained and developed transport network. In 1960, the condominium had 126 km of paved roads with an additional 48 km of unpaved roads. A ring road was completed in 1911 which linked all the principal baronies to each other. In the city of Singaradscha, frequent bus and tram services helped facilitate the movement of people. Inter-district bus services which connect the towns of Singaradscha were established as early as the 1920s. Singaradscha did not have an airport or any train lines owing to its small size. Its port served as the main point of entry and exit from the territory and was a focal backbone of Singaradscha's transport sector. Border crossings with the Republic of East Ramay were constructed in 1926, linking the two entities for the first time.

Traffic initially drove on the right side of the road, owing to Goetic heritage and influence, while neighboring East Ramay drove on the left. Upon crossing the border, vehicles had to manually switch driving sides without any infrastructure or exchange present. Traffic lights were installed to help coordinate the switch between the sides. Road markings and signage followed the Goetic and subsequently Alvak standards. Even though traffic drove on the right side of the road, most vehicles present in Singaradscha were right-hand drive due to proximity with other left-side driving nations. Singaradscha began preparing to switch to the left side of the road in 1962. All road markings and signs had been changed by early 1965, and the 1st of November 1965 was chosen as the date of change.

The condominium retained its privilege to issue its own license plates. As part of the Singaradscha agreement, plates from Singaradscha may enter East Ramay, and vice versa after passing through a border crossing. Singaradscha license plates ceased to exist by 1965 when all plates had to be changed into East Ramayan ones.


Population census
YearPop.±% p.a.
1875 31,492—    
1885 38,691+2.08%
1895 45,910+1.73%
1905 56,184+2.04%
1915 67,771+1.89%
1925 74,503+0.95%
1935 85,056+1.33%
1945 91,058+0.68%
1955 98,153+0.75%
1965 105,937+0.77%

According to the last census conducted by the bureau of statistics, the Condominium of Singaradscha had a population of 105,937 in 1965. With an area of 118 square kilometers (46 square miles), it recorded a density of 897.77 people per square kilometer (2302.98 people per square mile) in 1965, much of which is concentrated around the principal city of Singaradscha where more than 50% of the population lives. The population of Singaradscha has grown considerably well from the first census conducted in 1875, which recorded a population of only 31,492. The population was mostly of indigenous origin, with the Galuhan peoples making up 74% of the total population, followed by the Singa people at 15%, 8% Goetics, and the rest an agglomeration of other ethnic groups not specially categorized by the census.

Most of the population which reside outside of Singaradscha are concentrated into villages and towns, a title only granted to the district capital. In total, there was 1 city (Singaradscha), 6 towns, and 43 villages spread across 7 districts in 1964. If cities and towns are considered urban while the rest are rural, Singaradscha had an urbanization rate of nearly 65% in 1965, much higher than neighboring East Ramay.


Ethnic makeup of Singaradscha as of 1965.

      Galuhan (74.1%)
      Singa (14.8%)
      Goetics (8.1%)
      Other (3%)

Singaradscha was mainly comprised of three ethnic groups: the Galuhans, the Singas, and the Goetics. The Galuhans are the native inhabitants of Singaradscha, and form the bulk of the population. The Singas are a fairly new ethnic group, in which the term 'Singa' was only coined in 1905 to refer to the growing population of mixed Galuhan-Goetic descent. They comprised 15% of the population in 1965. The Goetics were the colonial masters and leading group during colonial times, and retained significant influence over the condominium after 1925. Goetics made up around 8% of the population. The majority of Goetics and Singas lived in the capital Singaradscha, while Galuhans many live in the countryside, even though they still form a plurality of the population in Singaradscha city.

Other ethnic groups present in Singaradscha mainly come from neighboring East Ramay, namely the Yafans, Manans, and Rajungans. Most have inhabited Singaradscha as traders since before Artemian invasions, and continue to exist within the territory. Other Artemians, notably Samots and Seratofians, form a very small minority in the population. Other Artemians exclusively live in the city of Singaradscha. Most are academics or intellectuals sent to help the functioning of several institutions, such as the University of Singaradscha and the Technical School.


The official language for all purposes of administration, commerce, and education, was the Goetic language. Goetic was the medium of instruction in all schools within Singaradscha and was the sole official language spoken in government institutions, including the parliament and in within the ministries. While Goetic was initially only spoken by government officials and the Goetics themselves, it has gradually been used by the native Galuhan peoples which were still the majority in Singaradscha. Besides Goetic, the native Galuhan language served as the main language for the rest of the population. After the establishment of the condominium, Singaradscha officially recognized the Eastern Ramayan Standard as a 'national language while retaining Goetic as the primary medium of exchange in almost all aspects of government and instruction. Beginning in 1925, all official and public signs must contain both languages. Banknotes of the Singaradscher Mark possess Goetic, ERS, and Galuhan languages.

According to the 1965 census, 64% of all citizens reported 'conversational fluency' in Goetic although only 13% of citizens declared Goetic as their mother tongue. 84% of citizens reported fluency in Galuhan. 78% of the population reported Galuhan as their mother tongue. An additional 65% of citizens possessed 'some fluency' in ERS, mostly among the youth. Such a high number may be attributed to the efforts done by the East Ramayan government in preparation for the integration of Singaradscha into East Ramay.