The Republic of South Kesh
Republik Kesh Selatan
Motto: Bersatu teguh bercerai runtuh
United we stand, divided we fall
|Largest largest city||Kesh Jaya|
|Official languages||Eastern Ramayan Standard|
|Recognised national languages||Austronesian languages|
|Ethnic groups |
|Yafan, Manan, Rejangan, Tarmin, Marayan, Adenan, Adonan, Ranaian, Molitan, Alahan, Vetan|
|Government||Confederal constitutional republic|
|Legislature||National Council of the People|
|People's Assembly Hall|
• Initial Austronesian Kingdoms
|c. 200 CE|
• War of the Quintuple Rajas
• SSE Colonization
|11 January 1864|
|14 August 1925|
• Fall to Communism
|17 October 1981|
• Union of South Kesh founded
|21 October 2021|
|493,000 km2 (190,000 sq mi)|
• 2020 estimate
• 2015 census
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|$435.5 Billion ($7,492)|
|Time zone||UTC+6 (South Kesh Time (SKT))|
South Kesh (Ramayan:Kesh Selatan), officially the Republic of South Kesh (Ramayan: Republik Kesh Selatan) is a confederal republic located in Southern Kesh. It shares a maritime border with Ramay to the west and is considered the southernmost portion of mainland Kesh. The Union of South Kesh has a land area of 493,000 square kilometers spanning several climate zones, boasting a population of over 55 million people comprised of a variety of native ethnic groups. Kotamaju serves as the national capital of South Kesh and thus serves as the administrative hub of the constituent republics. Other major cities include Klitrèn, Banyuanyar, Kesh Jaya, Waton, and Pantai Barat.
Originally a collection of small Austronesian people groups which later evolved into early city-states and kingdoms, the area of present-day South Kesh has been continuously inhabited by modern humans since at least the late neolithic period. The fertile banks of the Banyutoya river in what is now Sukamulyo served as the birthplace of many influential kingdoms and states that would eventually collide with one another, creating periods of great unrest and tension between these states. The continuous tension and competition over more fertile lands and resources has led to the formation major empires, notably the Empire of Sukamulyo and Reregan, into existence. These empires would soon fall under the influence of the State of Zhou by the early 12th century, bringing peace and stability in the region with the backing of Zhou. However, by the early 16th century, a war-torn Zhou lost its capacity to exert influence, and the tributary states broke free from Zhou influence, paving the way for other kingdoms in the region then dormant due to the presence of Zhou to perform minor raids and skirmishes along the borders, marking a period of insignificant turmoil.
The war of the quintuple rajas in the 18th century marked the beginning of the downfall of the great South-Keshian empires and kingdoms, with total destruction of the economy, social life and politics occurring through all the constituent states, making these states vulnerable towards invasions, a tactic the Samot-Seratofian Empire utilized in the war of colonializations in the mid 19th century, where the present-day borders of South Kesh were inherited from. Under Samot-Seratofian rule, the once warring ethnic groups were forced to coexist and maintain forced friendships with one another, creating a time of uneasy peace. With the dissolution of the Samot-Seratofian Empire in 1925, the Republic of East Ramay was formed, inheriting all territories from the former colony. The Republic of East Ramay was granted independence from the empire as a conseuqeune of the treaty of Holmgard signed earlier within the same year, and President Suwiryo sworn in as president. East Ramay would soon to be one of the most successful states in Kesh measured by economy and human development, with most of that contribution being attributed to East Ramay's neutrality in the Kesh War which enabled East Ramay to remain neutral and continue to trade with both sides, tripling East Ramay's GDP in a matter of 15 years.
With the death of President Suwiryo in 1973 marked the era of stagnation in East Ramay, as the economy slowed down. In 1980, a fiercely fought presidential election led to a brutal civil war in 1981, giving hard line communists with backing from XXX to be able to capture most of the country and most importantly the capital, effectively transforming East Ramay into an agrarian peasant's paradise. The new state, then named Democratic Ramay and led by the Democratic Party, carried out one of the worst genocides in Anterran history during its four years in power, eventually being ousted in a military coup led by ethnic Yafan generals. In 1986, the Union of South Kesh was proclaimed, and apartheid policies were implemented. The mass movement of people based on their citizenship class was one of the biggest internal migrations in Anterran history, and was the foundation of South Kesh's modern demographic spread. Samotkhe bombed the country in 1990 and levelled many of the cities and industry. A new capital was built between 1995 and 2000.
South Kesh is a confederal state with seventeen constituent republics. Each of the constituent republics possesses powers to govern their own territory, such as administration, education, and healthcare. Each republic gets their own president, constitution, official languages, anthems, and laws, however, are still subordinate to the confederal government in Kotamaju. The chairman is the head of state, on rotation among the 17 heads of the republics, with the chancellor presiding over government affairs. The system used in South Kesh is a parliamentary republic.
The South Keshian economy, standing at $590 billion dollars PPP wise, is a middle economic center and power within the general southern Kesh. South Kesh can be classified as a newly-industrialized country with many of its products and goods shifting from a more agrarian setting to secondary and tertiary needs. However, the level of inequality in South Kesh is extremely high, and the more agrarian republics of Ranai and Alahan suffer the worst from this inequality, with the bulk of their population and livelihoods still being dependent on either the cultivation of plants and animals or crude mining. In general, South Kesh is a major producer of Bauxite in Anterra with some estimates putting 50% of all the reserves in South Kesh alone. Automobile and electronic manufacture are major industries in the Republic of Wiratama, and contributes a huge portion towards the export value of South Kesh.
Etymology[edit | edit source]
The name South Kesh comes from the southernly location of the country located in the continent of Kesh.
History[edit | edit source]
Austronesian Settlement[edit | edit source]
Fertile coasts found in the south of the country was a hotspot for early Austronesian peoples to settle and build communities in, evident by the unearthing of many objects and items carbon dated to the 5th century BCE, however, numerous fossil records which predate the objects found in an excavation site in Banyumulyo suggests that the Austronesian settlers were not the original inhabitants of the area, and their arrival erased the existence of an even older people group which have been living in the region since at least the neolithic period. The Austronesians, with more modern equipment, managed to intrude the older people group and thrived until the present day.
The Austronesian peoples brought farming to what is present-day South Kesh. Granaries and remnants of bronze-age farms litter the southern coasts of South kesh dating from after the arrival of the supposed first landing of the Austronesian peoples in South Kesh. Many other artifacts such as necklaces, rings, and shoes were also found in grave sites. Semi-permanent strucutres along the Banyuasin river proves that the Austronesian settlers have moved inland, pushing the original inhabitants much more inland until they became extinct.
Feudal Kings[edit | edit source]
The population of the various austronesian groups that settled in Southern Kesh continued to grow. Villages became larger towns which boasted a more robust and efficient farming system and economy. As a result, the earliest evidence of organized government in South Kesh comes from a clay tablet written in the now-deciphered Old Yafan script found along the Banyuasin river, giving names of several towns and petty kingdoms. Farm owners gained more influence along with the increase in population, and became South Kesh's first leaders and rulers. Eventually, a feudal system similar to that observed in Artemia took root, however with a more streamlined and simplified role division. There exists only three classes: the nobility, the skilled, and the unskilled. Ocassionally, the southern parts of South Kesh would fall under the various dynasties and kingdoms of Prabhat, forming a core realm in the Prabhati-held territories.
It was common for towns with the same majority ethnic composition to band together and form kingdoms, with the leader of the most influential town being the king of the new kingdom. These new kingdoms often fought with one another over territory and resources, and with a more organized government system, wars between the kingdoms were far more deadly and organized than previous petty wars and skirmishes. According to a stone tablet found in the Kayuasem cave in 1927, a great war between the Kingdom of Kanutan and the Kingdom of Sawalanjar in the 5th century CE caused a great famine in the region as a lot of the farmers and traders were killed as collateral in the war.
The power vaccuum left by the war led to smaller kingdoms and states to form along the coast and the Banyuasin river, with smaller scale wars and raids still common.
Zhou Influence[edit | edit source]
South Kesh's strategic position in the southernmost portion of Kesh attracted officials from the State of Zhou to transform some kingdoms into tributary states of Zhou. In 1174 AD, Jiang Zemin, a Zhou official, made his maiden voyage to the South Kesh kingdoms and offered coastal kingdoms to become tributaries of Zhou, bringing with him gifts and promise of protection from Zhou against all invaders. The smaller coastal-based kingdoms, fearing an eventual invasion from the more powerful and larger inland kingdoms, agreed to become tributaries of the State of Zhou in return for protection and gifts. After the agreement, the inland kingdoms saw a massive decline in their ability to project power, as well as a diminishing economic importance in the region.
The period under Zhou influence had a tremendous effect on local cultures and way of life. Knowledge and ideas from Zhou flowed steadily into the tributary states, influencing the thought and governance of some kingdoms. Most kingdoms adopted a Zhou-style governance by revamping their public service system, making bureaucracy far more efficient. Farming practices were also brought from Zhou, increasing production of rice and other farmed goods, causing a population boom of the 13th century. Culture-wise, Zhou cuisine and spices entered the South-Keshian dish and palette during this period. Foods such as Fried noodles and rice can trace their origin back to provinces in present-day Kodeshia.
Many Zhou people migrated to one of the kingdoms to seek better oppurtunities. Most set up shops and goods exchange in the kingdoms, making the small Zhou minority an influential part of life and economy in the kingdoms. Scholars wishing to further their education would seek to go to Zhou and compete in the entrance exams into prestigious universities. Many stayed in Zhou as employment and career options are far better then they were back in Southern Kesh. To this day, a small Kodeshi minority exists in South Kesh, as well as a South Kesh minority in Kodeshia.
Southern Kesh Empires[edit | edit source]
In the 15th century, the Zhou dynasty, waning in influence, lost tributary control over the Southern Kesh states. The inland kingdoms, now in a much weaker position after centuries of dormancy, fell victim to the coastal kingdoms more well off and well equipped. In some occasions, the kingdoms fought with each other over former territory of the inland kingdoms. Some kingdoms, after conquering smaller inland kingdoms and states, proclaimed themselves as empires as a nod to the Zhou dynasty which had previously exerted influence over them. The Empire of Astuti was recorded to be the first great South Keshian empire, established in the year 1567. Subsequently, more empires such as the Empire of Ulakanagra and the Empire of Gautama were founded.
These empires did not coexisted peacefully, and the situation became more fragmented as it was before the arrival of Zhou influence in the region. With the three major empires all being former tributaries of the state of Zhou, meaning that their equipment and tactics were similar, war was inevitable, but victory would be pyrrhic. Due to these circumstances, a long age of uneasy peace was observed from the early 17th century to the mid 19th century, when internal strife in the Ulakanagra Empire caused a bloody civil war. Astuti and Gautama were found backing opposite powers in the civil war, leading to a proxy war between the two empires.
Colonial Era[edit | edit source]
In 1776, the Samot-Seratofian Empire, expanding into Southern Kesh, gained control over the Astuti Empire by negotiating a trade and arms deal that would eventually defeat the Gautama Empire. The Gautama Empire was crushed by joint Astuti-SSE forces in 1854, and the capital razed. The Astuti and Gautama Empires were then incorporated into Samot-Seratofian Eastern Ramay in 1861, granting exclusive rights to the emperor of Astuti to retain some political control over the domains conquered. The Samot-Seratofian forces advanced inland and conquered most of the remaining kingdoms and states left, organizing them into inland colonies and provinces. The Samot-Seratofian Empire also seized control over most ports west of the Banyuasin river, and solidified their colonial possession from these ports as forces marched inland. In 1874, the territory around the small port city of Singaradscha was leased to the Goetic Empire for 99 years, creating the Leased Territory of Singaradscha.
In 1876, a treaty was signed marking Eastern Ramay's borders, a border that still defines the shape of South kesh to this day.
Industrialization in the core regions of the colony increased exports and production. Samots and Seratofians came to the region to serve as bureaucrats or factory operators during the late 19th century. Local rebellions agains the forced construction of plantations and factories occured, although all have been quelled by the colonial forces. During the grand campaigns, the Eastern Ramay colony was a vital location for the production of arms and steel. In 1925, the Samot-Seratof Empire was dismantled, and independence was granted to all SSE colonies. Eastern Ramay renamed itself to the Republic of East Ramay upon independence.
Contemporary era[edit | edit source]
Suwiryo, sworn in as East Ramay's first president, moved the country towards from a colonial and divided society into a single national identity as South Keshians. The economy under the first terms of President Suwiryo managed to grow and lift most of the country out of poverty. The post of president remained unchallenged over the years while Suwiryo shifted the country from a presidential republic to a parliamentary republic with fresh elections in 1935. During the Kesh War, East Ramay's neutrality lifted the country's economy tremendously by trading with both sides of the war, increasing output and production in various tertiary industries. The economy peaked in the mid 1970s as East Ramay moved on from reconstruction in Kodeshia and other affected regions in East Kesh to more global trade. The death of President Suwiryo in 1974 was the formal beginning of the era of stagnation. Rifts in the government and bureaucracy were ignited internally and hindered further development. Singaradscha rejoined the country in 1966 after five years of negotiations and talks between both parties.
The hotly contested 1980 election marked the formal peak of the era of stagnation. All presidential candidates claimed victory and made competing claims about their legitimacy. A civil war broke out in 1980 between loyalists of three candidates. The underground communists, nicknamed the "Red Warriors," managed to take over strategic posts and locations in the country by surprise as no legitimate government was holding power. On the 17th of October 1981, the Warriors of Democracy took control of Sragen, the capital, and proclaimed victory. Democratic Ramay was proclaimed by Sang Nila, and modelled the government after pure communist ideas of XXX and immediately evacuated the cities, sending the entire population to work in the countryside as farmers or peasants. Democratic Ramay attempteed to transform the old society which had been contaminated by artemian and materialistic ideals unfit for a communist state.
Currency was abolished, and any remnants of the former society was either hid or destroyed. Most schools, museums, libraries, and universities were burned by Sang Nila's forces. Estimates as to how many people were killed by Red Warriors are still disputed. Most estimates put the number between seven and eleven million people killed either through executions, disease, or famine. An internal purge in 1985 killed at least tens of thousands of party members. Massive distrust towards Sang Nila emerged within party ranks, leading to a military coup by General Susantomo along with several other ethnic Yafan generals in 1986. Sang Nila was executed in 1986 and marked the official transition from a communist state.
General Susantomo relocated the population into sectors determined previously based on citizenship class and ethnic group, formalizing an apartheid state. Susantomo banned the export of steel and other commodities in 1989. Samotkhe bombed South Kesh in 1990 after a South Kesh military boat opened fire on Samot ships for getting too close to South Keshian territorial waters. The bombing campaign, known as the Salvation war by South Kesh, completely destroyed the capital Sragen and other major cities in South Kesh, as well as killing hundreds of thousands. A peace treaty was signed in November 1990. In 1995, South Kesh built a new capital named Kotamaju to serve as the national capital. In 2015, South Kesh implements e-Apartheid, lessening the burden on manpower to enforce apartheid.
In October 2021, the ruling party declared an end to apartheid, thus making all citizens equal before the law. Apartheid-era laws and customs were all repealed the same day. The Republic of South Kesh was established on the 21st of October as a continuation of the country South Kesh. Apartheid-era republics were granted full autonomy, though still subject to the confederate government centered in Kotamaju.
Geography[edit | edit source]
City of Klitrèn, Wiratama, economic capital of South Kesh
South Kesh is the southernmost country in mainland Kesh. It borders Naga to the north and Prabhat to the east, and shares a maritime border with Ramay to the south with the Senjakala islands, and also with Mero-Curgovina through St. Florian to the southwest. The country is also bordered by the South Kesh bay to its east, the Sea of Ramay to the southwest, and the Tethys Ocean to the east. The country covers an area of approximately 493,000 square kilometers, and spans a variety of climates and geographic regions, from the low-lying plains of Ulakanegara and parts of Gautama in the center of the country to the escarpments of Bauksia and Tenjambe which form part of the Mahendraw mountains to the north, the Great Suryalaya escarpemnts of Wiratama, Astuti, and Galuh to the south, and the Gurunmukti plateus in the western portion of the country. The Mahendra mountain range is the tallest mountain range in southern Kesh, and defines most of the border between Naga and Prabhat.
The major rivers in South Kesh are the Sura, Banyuasin, and the Bengawai rivers. Major population centers are concentrated along these three great rivers. Most of Argawangi and Gautama's population lives along the Sura river, while the city of Banyuasin is located on the mouth of the Banyuasin river. The cities of Pantai Barat and Ranai are located 10 km from the Bengawai river, which flows from the great lake system known as the "Nawai lake system". These rivers play an important role in irrigation and local transport, and were natural places of population centers.
South Kesh is a very mountainous country, with most of its 55 million people living in the remaining flat lands and valleys. Most of the land is either a tall plateau on top of an escarpment, or a mountain range, especially in the northern portions of the country. Ulakanegara is by far the flattest and most low-lying republic, while Bauksia is the most mountainous. The majority of western South Kesh is a very tall plateau and escarpment, and is very sparsely populated.
In addition to the mainland, South Kesh possess around 274 islands in the Senjakala archipelago which also extends into the country of Ramay. The Senjakala archipelago is a set of islands in the Sea of Ramay which was once connected to mainland South Kesh, evident by the similar geographic formations found on the islands and in southern South Kesh. Rising sea levels caused only the peaks and high-altitude lands to survive onto the modern day. The largest island, Sragen island, while geographically being part of the Senjakala archipelago, is more culutrally and historically linked to mainland South Kesh, and is reflected in the internal administrative boundaries.
Climate[edit | edit source]
South Kesh is divided into four major climates, a tropical monsoonal climate zone which covers the western and central portions of the country, a subtropical climate zone in the southern portions of the country, an alpine climate zones along the Mahendra mountains, and a cold desert zone to the north of the Mahendra mountains. Small parts of the country fall under the hot steppe climate, mostly restricted within the Gurunjaya and North Kesh republics. The mean temperature of the country hovers around 20 degrees celcius, though the alpine climates may see lower mean temperatures. Warm currents from the Tethys Ocean help keep the mean temperature up.
Government[edit | edit source]
- See also: Elections in South Kesh
As of 2022, South Kesh is a confederal republic with a rotating chairman as head of state and a chancellor as head of government. Power at the national level is vested unto the bicameral legislature. Further levels of government include the Republics, and the regencies. Each republic is entitled to its own constitution, head of state and government, a legislature, and judicative body. These republics are not independent and sovereign, though carry the weight of most administrative duties and tasks.
Constitutionally, the Chairman of South Kesh is the most powerful position or office within the country, followed by the Chancellor of South Kesh. In practice, the Chancellor is chosen by the Chairman with advice from the legislature, however, the party or coalition leader with the most votes in an election is automatically elevated into the Chancellery position. The offices of chairman and chancellor is a mostly symbolic role, as most administrative duties are carried out within the individual republics except for the aspects of defense and foreign policy. The chairman itself is a rotating position between the heads of states of the republics serving a one-year term each, with the order of rotation pre-determined by the constitution. As a result, the position of chairman can not be impeached. The chancellor oversees the prime ministers of each republic, and appoints ministers of respective government bodies to ensure the running of said facilities in the respective republics.
The bicameral legislature named the National Council of the People was created in 2021 after the abolition of apartheid and the quadricameral parliament system which was seen by most as a rubber-stamp parliament. The legislature consists of the senate and the people's assembly hall, tasked with promulgating laws which concern the state at a national level such as defense, foreign policy, or other matters of national importance. As a result, the scope of the new national parliament is much narrower than any of its predecessors in an act of decentralization and deconcentration.
Administrative divisions[edit | edit source]
South Kesh is comprised of 18 republics and 1 special administrative zones for a total of 19 first-level administrative divisions, each with their own heads of states, governments, and a republic constitution. Republics are the primary administrative division in South Kesh, possessing a multitude of powers and jurisdiction over matters such as healthcare, education, and safety. Each republic is further subdivided into second-level administrative divisions whose nomenclature might differ from republic to republic. The degree of self-governance of these second-level divisions depends on the legislation and policy handled at the republic level. Within the framework of South Keshian confederalism, the national government has arguably very small power and influence over its republics, and most issues which do not require coordination with another republic or national body is done at the republic level.
Republics elect heads of states and governments through various methods. South Kesh employs separation of power at the first-level division, and thus heads of states possess powers similar to that of other sovereign heads of state, while the head of government runs the day-to-day execution of services.